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Sun wind water earth life living legends for design AR2U070 Territory (design) 5ECTS AR0112 Civil engineering for dummies (calculations) 2ECTS Prof.dr.ir.

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Presentation on theme: "Sun wind water earth life living legends for design AR2U070 Territory (design) 5ECTS AR0112 Civil engineering for dummies (calculations) 2ECTS Prof.dr.ir."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sun wind water earth life living legends for design AR2U070 Territory (design) 5ECTS AR0112 Civil engineering for dummies (calculations) 2ECTS Prof.dr.ir. Taeke M. de Jong Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker Ir. D. de Bruin Drs. M.J. Moens Prof.dr.ir. C.M. Steenbergen Ir. M.W.M. van den Toorn >education

2 Natural history at Naturalis

3 Division of the Plant Kingdom

4 Biodiversity according to the CBS Biobase

5 Dutch respon- sibility Percentage of the European bird population

6 Kinds of responsibility B Very threatened BAVery threatened, important internationally BDVery threatened, vulnerable C Threatened CAThreatened, important internationally D Vulnerable DAVulnerable, important internationally

7 Habitat responsibility

8 The distribution of two world- wide rare species black-tailed godwit (grutto) marsh fleawort (moerasandijvie)

9 The influence of climatic changes on vegetation

10 Landscape changes since the last ice age

11 Legend units Global Continental National Regional

12 Gobal and continental types

13 R=1000km Continental areas of vegetation

14 R=100km: National counties of flora

15 Dunes and rivers Dispersion of marram (helm)Dispersion of greater burdock (grote klis)

16 Holocene and Pleistocene Dispersion of meadow barley (veldgerst) Dispersion of wavy hair-grass (bochtige smele)

17 Holocene forests

18 Pleistocene forests

19 Peat forests

20 Other national typologies

21 The condition of measure The smaller the open area the less animals could find a habitat. But that is not the case for botanical biodiversity as far as their dispersion is not dependent on big animals.

22 Possibilities for nature (H+N+S)

23 Possibilities for recreation (H+N+S)

24 The EHS for the Netherlands The EHS worked out on Internet for the province of South Holland and the Gelderse poort

25 Nature target groups

26 Lay-out, conservancy, development

27 Nature-target types per physical–geographical region

28 Nature-targets higher sandy soils

29 Elaborated targets 300 m.

30 Higher sandy formations

31 Northern coast formation

32 Mid-West coast formation

33 Boulder clay formation

34 South Limburg

35 Verlanding

36 Ecological tolerance

37 Quality = f(variation)

38 The ecologist’s view Andrewartha (1961):Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. Krebs, C.J. (1972, 1992): Ecology is the scientific study of the the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Begon; Harper; Townsend (1996): Ecology is the scientific study of the the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms, populations and communities.

39 The designer’s view: state of dispersion(form)

40 Alternatives of form: states of dispersion on one level of scale

41 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

42 Environmental science: society and environment Environment according to Udo de HaesEnvironment in technical sense

43 World population and agricultural surface

44 Agricultural grain surface per person

45 Yield per hectare

46 A paradox of scale One species, perhaps counting 80% ‘unhealthy’ specimens, is healthy enough to oust 1000 other species on 1 new species by evolution per year. Which risk do we count?

47 Possible futures

48 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

49 Autecology: population and habitat Gadwall duck (krakeend) 04 Garland Weed Class (eendekroosklasse)

50 States of dispersion on different levels of scale

51 Principles of extension

52 Built and open space

53 Open space

54 Possibilities for nature (H+N+S)

55 Possibilities for recreation (H+N+S)

56 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

57 Synecology: life community and biotope Klasse Orde Verbond Associatie Subassociatie

58 12 Weegbree-klasse Alterra CONCEPT Alterra

59 42 Voedselarme eiken- beukenbossen-klasse

60 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

61 System dynamics Odum(1971) Ecological group and biotope

62 Local ecotopes, ecological groups

63 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

64 Symbiosis Tyria jacobaeae and common ragwort

65 Breeding and host plant water dock (waterzuring) V18,V19 large copper butterfy (grote vuurvlinder) loosestrife (kattestaart) R27,R28, H27,H28,V17

66 Survival strategies Vogelmuur P48,P68 ("ruderal") Wilgenroosje R47,R67, H47,H62 ("competitor") Grote sleutelbloem G43,G47kr,H43,H47 ("stress-tolerator")

67 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

68 Cybernetic variation

69 Gradients (Van Leeuwen) Gradient (limes divergens)Disturbance (limes convergens)

70 Gradient map

71 Types of ecology decreasing human centred approach

72 Levels of scale (Pianka 1994)

73 Schale paradox

74 Scale articulation

75 Binary legend of man’s habitat

76 Ecological units

77 Ecological elaboration R=300m Communities in biotopes R=30m Ecological groups in ecotopes R=3m Symbiosis and competition R=30cm Individual survival strategies

78

79 Randstad

80 Linear versus compact Same surface black and white (24 squares ) (Tummers-Zuurmond 1997)

81 Vegetation biodiversity

82 R=3km

83 R=1km 180 species200 species330 species

84 National rareness of 500 urban plant species in Zoetermeer

85 Town ecology hypotheses

86 Metropolitan ambitions

87 Urban perspective

88 Wall and tread plants urban areas procumbent pearlwort liggend vetmuur P40mu yellow corydalis gele helmbloem P40mu ivy-leaved toadflax muurleeuwebek P40mu plantain weegbree P48tr shepherd's-purse herderstasje P48tr knotgrass varkensgras P48tr annual meadow-grass straatgras P48tr pineapple weed schijfkamille P48tr

89 Comparing and evaluating


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