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1 FWO Research Network Foundations of Software Evolution Research Meeting Friday, September 20, 2002 Technical University of Vienna Vienna, Austria
Welcome by Mehdi Jazayeri
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 3 Today’s Schedule 9:00 Welcome by Mehdi Jazayeri 9:30 Overview of past activities and finances by Tom Mens 10:00 Overview of ESF RELEASE network by Serge Demeyer 10:30 --- Coffee break --- 11:00 Talk about Evolution Taxonomy by Tom Mens 11:30 Discussion about Evolution Taxonomy 12:00 --- Lunch --- 13:00 Summary Q&A Software Evolution by Tom Tourwe 13:30 Discusion about Q&A Software Evolution by Serge Demeyer identification of opportunities for collaboration 15:00 --- Coffee break --- 15:30 Discussion about future activities 17:00 End of the workshop 20:00 --- Workshop Dinner ---
Overview of past activities and finances by Tom Mens
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 5 Overview of finances for 2002 Available budget for 2002: 12394,68 EUR + rest of last year: 7715,44 EUR Research visits-1274,33 EUR Conferences and workshops-5662,44 EUR WOG meeting (18/1/02)3746,46 EUR ECOOP workshop USE 457,50 EUR IWPSE 2002 450,48 EUR SEKE 20021008,00 EUR network lunches- 118,40 EUR special issue J. software evolution - 66,86 EUR other? ? boeken mens tom 19,81 ? kost Tampa D’Hondt 319,53 Amount still available: 12988,09 EUR Organisation of this meeting -????,?? EUR Barcelona evolution workshop -????,?? EUR
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 6 Detail of finances for 2002 Conference and workshop fees, travel and accomodation expenses WOG network meeting 18/1/20023746,46 EUR food and drink and room316,80 Tom Mens9,30 Mehdi Jazayeri902,14 Raymond Boute11,00 Michel Wermelinger377,80 Reiko Heckel189,90 Gall & Jazayeri1021,63 Serge Demeyer10,16 Michele Lanza433,42 Stephane Ducasse474,31 ECOOP Workshop USE457,50 EUR Tom Mens (ws registration)250 Tom Mens (travel costs)207,50 IWPSE 2002450,48 EUR Michel Wermelinger450,48 SEKE 20021008,00 EUR Kim Mens1008,00
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 7 Detail of finances for 2002 Research visits1274,33 EUR Serge Demeyer (Dec. 2001, Bern)486,00 Serge Demeyer (May 2002, Bern)313,58 Tom Mens (Paderborn)474,75 Lunches118,40 EUR T Mens, K Mens, M Wermelinger118,40 Special issue JSME 66,86 EUR DHL11,60 + 55,26
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 8 Publications in 2002 Conferences and workshops Conferences T. Mens, S. Demeyer, D. Janssens. Formalising Behaviour Preserving Program Transformations. Proc. ICGT 2002 K. Mens, T. Mens, M. Wermelinger. Maintaining software through intentional source-code views. SEKE 2002 Workshops T. Mens, M. Lanza. A Graph-Based Metamodel for Object-Oriented Software Metrics, GraBaTS workshop, ENTCS 72(2), 2002 G. Arevalo, T. Mens. Analysing Object-Oriented Application Frameworks Using Concept Analysis. MASPEGHI workshop, LNCS, September 2002 G. Arevalo, T. Mens. Analysing Object Oriented Framework Reuse using Concept Analysis. ECOOP 2002 Inheritance workshop, June 2002 K. Mens, T. Mens, M. Wermelinger. Supporting software evolution with Intentional Software Views. IWPSE 2002, pp. 138-142, ACM Press, May 2002
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 9 Publications in 2002 Books, journals and dissertations Journals T. Mens, M. Wermelinger. Separation of concerns for software evolution. Special issue of JSME Journal Dissertations T. Tourwe. Automated Support for Framework-Based Software Evolution. PhD Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, September 2002 T. Richner. Recovering Behavioral Design Views: a Query-based Approach. PhD Thesis, University of Bern, May 2002 Books S. Demeyer, S. Ducasse, O. Nierstrasz. Object-Oriented Reengineering Patterns. Morgan Kaufmann, 2002
Overview of ESF RELEASE by Serge Demeyer
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 11 ESF RELEASE VUBUA UCLRUG KUL UL-PT UB-CHTUV-AT UPB-DE TUD-DE In Belgium Abroad FWO-WOG Title: Formal foundations of software evolution Funding: FWO Flanders Duration: 1/1/2001 – 31/12/2005 Funding: 61973 EUR SU-ITSER-NL IC-UKLSR-FR ESF-RELEASE Title: Research links to explore and advance software evolution Funding: European Science Foundation Duration: 1/7/2002 – 31/12/2005 Funding: 93660 EUR
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 12 ESF RELEASE Proposed network activities Establish a sound scientific research method (Lehman and Ramil activity coordinators) Set up evolution benchmarks (Serge Demeyer activity coordinator)
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 13 ESF RELEASE Network convenors Tom Mens (VUB-BE) Serge Demeyer (UA-BE) Coordination committee Giulio Antoniol (SU-IT) Jan Bosch (SER-NL) Michel Wermelinger (UL-PT) Stéphane Ducasse (UB-CH) Harald Gall (TUV-A) Gregor Engels (UPB-DE) Meir M. Lehman (IC-UK) Jacky Estublier (LSR-FR)
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 14 ESF RELEASE Official observers Theo D’Hondt (VUB-BE) José Luiz Fiadeiro (UL-PT) Oscar Nierstrasz (UB-CH) Mehdi Jazayeri (TUV-A) Reiko Heckel (UPB-DE) Jean-Marie Favre (LSR-FR) Juan F. Ramil (OU-UK) Advisors Kim Mens, Axel van Lamsweerde (UCL-BE) Chris Verhoef (UA-NL) Keith Bennett (UD-UK) Malcolm P. Atkinson (UG-UK) Stephen Cook, Rachel Harrison (UR-UK) Reidar Conradi (UST-NO) Dag Sjøberg (UO-NO)
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 15 ESF RELEASE Distribution of responsibilities Network convenor Treasurer Website and mailing list manager Report manager Workshop coordinator Meeting coordinator Activity coordinators
Evolution Taxonomy by Tom Mens in collaboration with Jim Buckley, Awais Rashid, Matthias Zenger
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 17 Evolution Taxonomy Taxonomy of software evolution based on mechanisms of change and factors that impact upon these mechanisms (ECOOP USE 2002 working group) Six “dimensions” of properties Temporal properties (when?) Change properties (what?) Drivers of change (who?) Object of change (where?) Change process (how?) System properties
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 18 Evolution Taxonomy Related work: categorising the “why” of software evolution based on the “purpose” of software changes Lientz&Swanson 1980 perfective / adaptive / corrective maintenance Chapin et al. 2001 evidence-based classification of 12 types of software evolution evaluative, consultive, training, updative, reformative, adaptive, performance, preventive, groomative, enhancive, corrective, reductive
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 19 Evolution Taxonomy Use the taxonomy to Provide an overview of the domain of software evolution Position individual software evolution tools and techniques identify their strengths and weaknesses Compare and combine software evolution tools and techniques choose the best one among different alternatives find out whether two tools are complementary or overlapping Evaluate the use of a tool or technique in a particular evolution context
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 20 Evolution Taxonomy System propertiesChange properties (what) Object of change (where) Temporal properties (when) Change process (how) Drivers of change (who) openness activeness availability type effect invasiveness safety locality time of change history change frequency artifact plancontrolmeasureverify driver automation distribution CHANGE granularity scope
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 21 Evolution Taxonomy Temporal properties Time of change time when a change is requested time when the change is prepared time when the changes becomes available for execution time when the change is executed Change history Versioning Change frequency
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 22 Evolution Taxonomy Temporal properties Change history sequential / parallel versions synchronous / asynchronous divergent / convergent changes (merging) invasive (destructive) / non-invasive changes
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 23 Evolution Taxonomy Drivers of change Distribution local / distributed Degree of automation automatic / interactive / manual Role person requesting the change person making the change person evaluating the change manager approving the change
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 24 Evolution Taxonomy Change properties Type of change structural versus semantic changes Effect of change addition / subtraction / modification Safety type safety backward compatibility safety semantic safety (impossible) Invasiveness
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 25 Evolution Taxonomy Object of change Artifact being changed documents, requirements specification, analysis and design models, source code, tests, binaries, executables, architectures, … Granularity from very coarse to very fine granularity Locality of change local/propagated/global Scope of change to different kinds of artifacts?
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 26 Evolution Taxonomy System properties Activeness Passive = changes are driven externally Active = system drives the changes itself (e.g. by monitoring events) e.g. dynamic reconfiguration Openness Open system = explicit provisions are built in the software to make it easier to evolve e.g. framework, plug-ins, templates, reflection Availability system must keep running under all circumstances
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 27 Evolution Taxonomy Change process Plan e.g. using change request forms Control e.g. with or without versioning; extreme programming Measure e.g. impact analysis, effort estimation, evolution metrics, estimating the size of a change, … Verify
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 28 Evolution Taxonomy Validation: Apply the taxonomy to a number of tools Refactoring Browser, CVS, eLiza, …
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 29 Evolution Taxonomy RefactoringBrowserCVSeLiza temporal properties time of change change historyirrelevantparallel asynchronoussequential change frequencyarbitrary drivers of change distributionlocaldistributed automationsemi-automaticfully automated role change properties type of changestructuralanysemantic effect of change safetystatic: more or lessno? invasiveness
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 30 Evolution Taxonomy RefactoringBrowserCVSeLiza object of change artifactsource codefileexecutable code granularityseveral classes / methodsfile localitylocal changes with low impact scope system properties activenesspassive active opennesssource available / reflection open source / add ons / plug ins no availability change process planirrelevant yes controlirrelevant yes measure verify
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 31 Evolution Taxonomy Apply the taxonomy to the WOG-Evol network Techniques Graph rewriting for refactoring (VUB, UA) Architectural reconfiguration (Lisbon) Coordination contracts (Lisbon) Model transformations (Paderborn) … Tools CodEvolver (Bern) Soul DupLoc (Bern) Café (Vienna) …
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 32 Evolution Taxonomy temporal properties time of change change history change frequency drivers of change distribution automation role change properties type of change effect of change safety invasiveness
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 33 Evolution Taxonomy object of change artifact granularity locality scope system properties activeness openness availability change process plan control measure verify
Q&A Software Evolution by Tom Tourwe
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 35 Q&A Software Evolution General questions 1. What is software evolution (SE)? 2. Can you provide a taxonomy/classification of SE? 3. What are the most important problems in SE that need to be addressed? 1. From a practical/industrial point of view 2. From a research point of view
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 36 Q&A Software Evolution Research questions 1. Which of the important SE problems do you (intend to) address? 1. In your past research 2. In your current research 3. In your future research 2. Which approaches do you take to tackle these problems? 3. How do you (intend to) validate your approach(es) in practice? 4. If you intend to validate your approach(es) on a concrete software system, what are the specific characteristics that you require of this software system?
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 37 Q&A Software Evolution Contributions by Serge Demeyer, Luuk Groenewegen, Mehdi Jazayeri, Kim Mens, Tom Mens, Tobias Rotsche, Tom Tourwe
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 38 Definition of Software Evolution The way a software system reacts to changing requirements Software evolution occurs when software artefacts change Implementation, but other artefacts as well Software evolution refers to the sequence of changes that software goes through from its first release until its retirement Software evolution is the systematic process of extending and adapting systems, without starting from scratch The realized history of the software system during its lifetime
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 39 Summary Effect (result) vs. action (how) Evolution vs. maintenance Change of requirements vs. any kind of change Evolution after first release vs. starting from scratch
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 40 Taxonomy of Software Evolution Anticipated vs. unanticipated Version controlled or not Planned vs. unplanned Controlled vs. uncontrolled Manual vs. supported E.g. by means of refactoring What is being changed? Requirements, design, implementation,.. Type of change Perfective, adaptive, corrective,..
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 41 Taxonomy of Software Evolution Granularity of changes Systems, subsystems, classes, methods, statements,.. Change process Sequential changes, parallel changes,.. Dynamic (runtime) vs. static evolution Short vs. long period
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 42 Industrial Problems Change & Impact analysis Effort & cost estimation Change propagation Conflict detection Merge conflicts,.. Re(verse) Engineering Software aging When does software degrade? Why does(n’t) it degrade? How can we take countermeasures?
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 43 Industrial Problems Software development/evolution processes Impact of software development process on evolution Organize and structure evolution process Tool support for all of the above Effect of training, experience, education, etc. How to measure this? How to teach?
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 44 Research Problems Software evolution methodology Techniques and tools to understand, explain & discipline software evolution processes Research methodology Techniques to evaluate and measure software evolution techniques & processes Conformance checking of design & implementation, implementation & documentation Co-evolution How to keep architecture, design, implementation,.. in sync
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 45 Research Problems How to measure software evolution in industry? Effect of technology on software evolution? E.g. programming language, environment,.. How to measure this effect? How to improve existing technologies? Use of formalisms To address software evolution To enable tool support for evolution
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 46 Current Research Topics Re(verse) engineering (of software architectures) Refactoring Use of formalisms Identifying refactorings that have been or should be applied Conformance checking Avoiding architectural decay Co-evolution
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 47 Current Research Topics Use of measurements (metrics) for software evolution to identify refactorings that have been applied Analyzing evolution To predict future evolution To support software merging & upgrading
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 48 Approaches taken Prototype tools based on metamodels, formalisms,.. Exploring mathematical formalisms E.g. graph rewriting, metrics,.. Visualization techniques
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 49 Validation Case studies Small vs. large scale
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 50 Requirements for Validation Large scale Different versions of the source code Smalltalk, Java, C++, … Version controlled Well-documented Artefacts Design models, architectural views, … Version controlled if possible Evolution Changes, transformations, …
Future activities by Tom Mens
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 52 Forthcoming workshops 2002 October 7-12: ICGT 2002 workshops (Barcelona, Spain) Graph-based tools (7-8 october) organised by Andy Schurr, Tom Mens, Gabriele Taentzer Software evolution through transformations (11-12 october) organised by Reiko Heckel, Tom Mens, Michel Wermelinger
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 53 Workshops 2003 ETAPS 2003 Unanticipated Software Evolution 5-6 April 2003, Warsaw, Poland ECOOP 2003 July 21-25, Darmstadt, Germany proposed workshop about Refactoring ESEC 2003 1-5 September 2003, Helsinki, Finland IWPSE 2003: Int. Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, 1-2 Sept. ICSM 2003 (“The architecture of existing systems”) 22-26 September 2003, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Sept. 23: workshop on “Evolution of Large-Scale Industrial Software Applications”
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 54 Network Meetings 2003 First ESF-RELEASE meeting Date? Location? Next WOG-Evol meeting Date? Location? NoE-ELISA coordination meeting Date? Location? Official EU meeting in Brussels 11-13 November 2002 Refactoring Event Date? Somewhere in 2003 Location: Antwerp
FWO-WOG, September 2002, Vienna © Tom Mens, Vrije Universiteit Brussel 55 Research visits 2003 1 person from Bern to Brussels 1 person from Bern to Antwerp 2 persons from Brussels to Bern 3 persons from Brussels to Vienna 2 persons from Antwerp to Paderborn 1 person from Leiden to Antwerp
Wrap-up by Mehdi Jazayeri
1 FWO Research Network Foundations of Software Evolution Research Meeting Friday, January 18, 2002 Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels, Belgium.
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