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Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Research group Palaeoecology and Landscape ecology (P&L) Temperate – Palaeoecology:

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Presentation on theme: "Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Research group Palaeoecology and Landscape ecology (P&L) Temperate – Palaeoecology:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Research group Palaeoecology and Landscape ecology (P&L) Temperate – Palaeoecology: Van Geel, Van Mourik – Landscape ecology: Kooijman, Sevink Tropics – Palaeoecology: Hooghiemstra, Van Boxel – Vegetation ecology: Duivenvoorden, Cleef

2 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Palaeoecology & Landscape ecology Rationale : To understand present-day climate and ecosystems, and to anticipate future change, we need a reference This reference is the record of past changes found in peat archives and sediment sequences Peat archive sediment archive

3 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main research activities of P & L study of records of past climate change inferred from vegetation change at different time-scales: –Neogene (25 Ma >), –Pleistocene (2.5 Ma >), –Holocene (10 ka >), –Anthropogene (2 ka >) study of the present status and dynamic history of ecosystems societal relevant research: nature conservation, Kyoto Protocol Scientific American May 2006 Carina Hoorn

4 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics 1 Reconstruction of ecosystem dynamics and climate change Temperate: Europe; Siberia Tropics: Mexico to Bolivia (20°N – 20°S) –rainforest, dry forest, savanna, montane forest, páramo Subjects: -biotic setting: floral evolution, biostratigraphy, vegetation change -abiotic setting: basin development, landscape development, sedimentary and geochemical processes -mechanisms at work: orbital forcing, solar forcing Van Geel, Hooghiemstra et al.

5 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics 1 (continued) Data synthesis, data-model comparisons Hooghiemstra, Van Boxel et al. PFTs Biomes Aims: calibration of model output by geological data (international BIOME project) inverse modeling studies (effects of pCO 2, temperature, precipitation): sensitivity studies  improved site selection Pollen taxa  Ecological groups  Ecosystems 6000 BP m 4100 m Warmer and wetter Cooler and drier

6 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics 1 (continued) Reconstruction of ecosystem dynamics Tropics: plant diversity Are Amazonian forests so species rich owing to many different niches being filled by numerous phylogenetically different taxa? Temperate: nutrients Duivenvoorden, Kooijman Significance of substrate / pH for availability of nutrients

7 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics 2 Development of new methodologies Common practice: –palynologists use only ‘traditional’ fossil types –a large number of unknown fossils are ignored Identification of ‘unknowns’ reveals a wealth of information about past natural and anthropogenic environments: –abundance of herbivores –intensity of fire –euthrophication of water (cyanobacteria) Aim: improve the quality of palaeo- environmental reconstructions Van Geel

8 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics 2 (continued) Development of new methodologies Problematic ‘wiggles’ in the 14 C calibration curve has been turned into an advantage: 14 C AMS wiggle match dating delivers greater chronological precision + the role of the Sun in climate change can be evaluated BioTime : –how representative are pollen spectra for plant diversity? –how did plant diversity vary in the past with climate change Van Geel, Hooghiemstra & Duivenvoorden 14 C clock = fast 14 C clock = slow

9 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Main Research Topics (3) Interaction between biotic & abiotic components in the geo-ecosystems Proxies: –biotic: pollen, non–pollen palynomorphs diatoms, C org, charcoal, –abiotic: grain size analysis, inorganic geochemistry (elements) –physical:  14 C (solar activity) –stable isotopes (∂ 13 C) and biomarkers Aim: place climate change-driven vegetation change in its abiotic environment. Keeping in mind: uplift basin development regimes of sediment transport diagenesis All group members

10 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Project acquisition 2000 – 2006 WOTRO-DGIS: 7 projects WOTRO-Fellowships: 1 project WOTRO-Integrated Programme : 1 project NWO-ALW:11 projects AlBan : 1 project EU : 2 projects Tropenbos-NUFFIC- COLCIENCIAS: 2 projects IBED: 3 projects Externally funded PhD projects: 2 projects 28 projects

11 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Netherlands : Centre for Isotope Research Free University Amsterdam Netherlands Institute Sea Research (NIOZ) Netherlands Institute Applied Geology (NITG) Netherlands Centre Luminiscence Dating (NLG) RING / ROB Ministry of Agriculture and Nature Management Universities of Nijmegen and Wageningen International : Colombia: Universidad Nacional, Bogotá/ Medellín /Leticia Colombia: Universidad de los Andes Peru: Universidad Nacional para la Amazonia Ecuador : Pontífica Universidad Católica México: Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM) & ECOSUR Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) community Germany: Göttingen, Potsdam, Greifswald UK: Bristol, Gloucestershire, Leeds, Leicester, Nottingham, Southampton, York Ireland: Dublin Finland: Helsinki, Turku Sweden: Royal Botanical Museum, Stockholm Denmark: Aarhus Estonia: Tallin Canada: Regina Cooperation

12 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam A research highlight A novel 3.2 Ma terrestrial record of Pleistocene ice-ages from the Bogotá Basin Torres, Hooghiemstra 586 m deep bore hole Funza-2 at 2550 m altitude VivianiteVolcanic ash XRF- scanner

13 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam A research highlight Depositional environments Lacustrine Fluvio-lacustrine Fluvial Biotic Abiotic 285 m Facies 385 m

14 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Torres, Hooghiemstra A research highlight

15 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Future Research Non-pollen palynomorphs Solar forcing of climate change Basins of Bogotá & Fúquene: harvesting the huge data sets of fine-resolution pollen records  ESPM Amazonia: plant diversity and ice age environments GIS applications for calibrating paleodata to modern data in regional syntheses  CBPG Societal relevant research: –Nature restoration and conservation supported by paleo-data  EPS –Forensic studies –IPCC related research  ESPM Pollen & GIS


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