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1 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Professor De Chen Institutt for kjemisk prosessteknologi, NTNU Gruppe for katalyse og petrokjemi Kjemiblokk.

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Presentation on theme: "1 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Professor De Chen Institutt for kjemisk prosessteknologi, NTNU Gruppe for katalyse og petrokjemi Kjemiblokk."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Professor De Chen Institutt for kjemisk prosessteknologi, NTNU Gruppe for katalyse og petrokjemi Kjemiblokk V, rom 407

2 2 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Kjemisk reaksjonsteknikk Chemical Reaction Engineering H. Scott Fogler: Elements of Chemical Engineering University of Michigan, USA Time plan: Week 34-47, Tuesday: 08:15-10:00 Thursday: 11:15:13:00 Problem solving: Tuseday:16:15-17:00

3 3 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering

4 4 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering  Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the field that studies the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and the design of the reactors in which they take place. Kjemisk reaksjonsteknikk Chemical Reaction Engineering

5 5 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Lecture notes will be published on It’s learning after the lecture (Pensumliste ligger på It’s learning Deles ut på de første forelesningene) Øvingsopplegget ligger på It’s learning Deles ut på de første forelesningene

6 6 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Felleslaboratorium Faglærer: Professor Heinz Preisig For information: It’s learning Introduction lecture: Place : in PFI-50001, the lecture room on the top of the building Date: Tuesday 21 of August Time: 12: :00

7 7 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering TKP4110 Chemical Reaction Engineering Øvingene starter onsdag 26 august kl 1615 i K5. Lillebø, Andreas Helland:Lillebø, Andreas Helland: Stud.ass.: Kristian Selvåg : Øyvind Juvkam Eraker: Emily Ann Melsæther:

8 8 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Lecture 1 Kjemisk reaksjonsteknikk Chemical Reaction Engineering 1. Industrial reactors 2. Reaction engineering 3. Mass balance 4. Ideal reactors

9 9 - 09/07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Steam Cracking (Rafnes)

10 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Batch reactor

11 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Fixed bed reactor

12 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering CSTR bioreactor

13 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Artificial leaf, photochemical reactor

14 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Reaction engineering Mass transfer Heat transfer Momentum transfer

15 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering

16 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Engineering Mole Balance Rate Laws Stoichiometry These topics build upon one another 16

17 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Mole Balance Rate Laws Stoichiometry Isothermal Design Heat Effects 17 No-ideal flow

18 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics and reactor design are at the heart of producing almost all industrial chemicals It is primary a knowledge of chemical kinetics and reactor design that distinguishes the chemical engineer from other engineers

19 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Engineering 1. Week 34, Aug. 21, chapter 1, Introduction, mole balance, and ideal reactors, 2. Week 34, Aug. 23, chapter2, Conversion and reactor size 3. Week 35, Aug. 28, chapter 3, Reaction rates 4. Week 35, Aug. 30, chapter 3, Stoichometric numbers 5. Week 36, Sept. 4, chapter 4, isothermal reactor design (1) 6. Week 36, Sept. 6, chapter 4, isothermal reactor design (2) 7. Week 37, Sept. 11, chapter 10, catalysis and kinetics (1) 8. Week 37, Sept. 13, chapter 10, catalysis and kinetics (2) 9. Week 38, Sept. 18, chapter 10, catalysis and kinetics (2) 10. Week 38, Sept. 20, chapter 5,7, kinetic modeling (1) 11. Week 39, Sept. 25, chapter 5,7, kinetic modeling (2) 12. Week 39, Sept. 28 chapter 6, multiple reactions (1) 13. Week 40, Oct. 2, chapter 6 multiple reactions (2) 14. Week 40, Oct. 4, summary of chapter 1-7, and 10

20 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Engineering  41 (9/10, 11/10) (JPA)Reaktorberegninger for ikke-isoterme systemer.  42 (16/10, 18/10) 8.3 – 8.5 (JPA)Energibalanser, stasjonær drift. Omsetning ved likevekt. Optimal fødetemperatur.  43 (23/10, 25/10) (JPA)CSTR med varmeeffekter og flere løsninger ved stasjonær drift, ustabilitet.   44 (30/10, 1/11) 11 (JPA)Masseoverføring, ytre diffusjonseffekter i heterogene systemer.   45 (6/11, 8/11) 11 (JPA)Fylte reaktorer (packed beds). Kjernemodellen (shrinking core). Oppløsning av partikler og regenerering av katalysator.  46 (13/11, 15/11) (JPA)Diffusjon og reaksjon i katalysatorpartikler, Thieles modul, effektivitetsfaktor.  47 (20/11,22/11) (JPA)Masseoverføring og reaksjon i flerfasereaktorer. Oppsummering.  50 (Mandag 13/12) Eksamen, kl

21 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Chemical Identity and reaction  A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity. There are three ways for a species to loose its identity: 1. Decomposition CH 3 CH 3  H 2 + H 2 C=CH 2 2. Combination N 2 + O 2  2 NO 3. Isomerization C 2 H 5 CH=CH 2  CH 2 =C(CH 3 ) 2 21

22 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Rate  The reaction rate is the rate at which a species looses its chemical identity per unit volume.  The rate of a reaction (mol/dm 3 /s) can be expressed as either:  The rate of Disappearance of reactant: -r A or as  The rate of Formation (Generation) of product: r P 22

23 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Rate Consider the isomerization A  B r A = the rate of formation of species A per unit volume -r A = the rate of a disappearance of species A per unit volume r B = the rate of formation of species B per unit volume 23

24 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Rate  For a catalytic reaction, we refer to -r A ', which is the rate of disappearance of species A on a per mass of catalyst basis. (mol/gcat/s) NOTE: dC A /dt is not the rate of reaction 24

25 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reaction Rate Consider species j: 1. r j is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume [e.g. mol/dm 3 s] 2. r j is a function of concentration, temperature, pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any) 3. r j is independent of the type of reaction system (batch, plug flow, etc.) 4. r j is an algebraic equation, not a differential equation (e.g. = -r A = kC A or -r A = kC A 2 ) 25

26 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering General Mole Balance F j0 FjFj GjGj System Volume, V 26

27 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering General Mole Balance If spatially uniform If NOT spatially uniform 27

28 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering General Mole Balance Take limit 28

29 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering General Mole Balance General Mole Balance on System Volume V F A0 FAFA GAGA System Volume, V 29

30 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Batch Reactor Mole Balance Batch Well Mixed 30

31 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Batch Reactor Mole Balance Integrating Time necessary to reduce number of moles of A from N A0 to N A. when t = 0 N A =N A0 t = t N A =N A 31

32 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Batch Reactor Mole Balance NANA t 32

33 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering CSTR Mole Balance Steady State CSTR 33

34 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Well Mixed CSTR volume necessary to reduce the molar flow rate from F A0 to F A. CSTR Mole Balance 34

35 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance 35

36 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Rearrange and take limit as Δ V  0 Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance 36 This is the volume necessary to reduce the entering molar flow rate (mol/s) from F A0 to the exit molar flow rate of F A.

37 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Alternative Derivation – Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance Steady State PFR 37

38 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Differientiate with respect to V The integral form is: This is the volume necessary to reduce the entering molar flow rate (mol/s) from F A0 to the exit molar flow rate of F A. Alternative Derivation – Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance 38

39 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Steady State PBR Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance 39

40 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance Rearrange: PBR catalyst weight necessary to reduce the entering molar flow rate F A0 to molar flow rate F A. The integral form to find the catalyst weight is: 40

41 /07/2014 Department of Chemical Engineering Reactor Mole Balance Summary Reactor DifferentialAlgebraicIntegral CSTR Batch NANA t PFR FAFA V 41


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