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Kaskawina, cultureel erfgoed, en zwijgzaamheid in Amsterdam. Markus Balkenhol Meertens Institute/VU.

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Presentation on theme: "Kaskawina, cultureel erfgoed, en zwijgzaamheid in Amsterdam. Markus Balkenhol Meertens Institute/VU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kaskawina, cultureel erfgoed, en zwijgzaamheid in Amsterdam. Markus Balkenhol Meertens Institute/VU

2 Herdenking van de slavernij Cultureel Erfgoed Kaskawina muziek

3 Cultureel Erfgoed Publieke vorm Burgerschap Materialiteit en Immaterialiteit

4 Cultureel Erfgoed (Unesco) “monuments, groups of buildings, sites which are of universal value” Threatened with destruction Conservation and protection

5 Cultureel Erfgoed, publieke vorm “Kenmerkend voor alle erfgoed is dat het is gered van een dreigende ondergang en vervolgens uit het gewone leven is gelicht en in een echte of virtueIe vitrine geplaatst.” (Rob van der Laarse 2011:88) Dilemma van conservatie: In leven houden door immobilisatie?

6 Cultureel Erfgoed, burgerschap Unesco: Universeel Maar verantwoordelijkheid van staten Verlangen naar gedeeld erfgoed Burgerschap/belonging Nationalisme

7 Im/materieel cultureel erfgoed “Cultural heritage is not limited to material manifestations, such as monuments and objects that have been preserved over time. This notion also encompasses living expressions and the traditions that countless groups and communities worldwide have inherited from their ancestors and transmit to their descendants, in most cases orally.” (Unesco) Immaterieel erfgoed om dilemma te overkomen (Laarse)

8 Cultureel Erfgoed en kolonialisme Cultureel erfgoed en macht Stilte 'lower frequency'

9 Macht I „Die Gefahr droht sowohl dem Bestande der Tradition wie ihrem Empfänger. Für beide ist sie ein und dieselbe: sich zum Werkzeug der herrschenden Klasse herzugeben. In jeder Epoche muß versucht werden, die Überlieferung von neuem dem Konformismus abzugewinnen, der im Begriff steht, sie zu überwältigen. […] Nur dem Geschichtsschreiber wohnt die Gabe bei, im Vergangnen den Funken der Hoffnung anzufachen, der davon durchdrungen ist: auch die Toten werden vor dem Feind, wenn er siegt, nicht sicher sein. Und dieser Feind hat zu siegen nicht aufgehört. Benjamin 2010[1940]

10 Macht II “colonisation is not satisfied merely with holding a people in its grip and emptying the native's brain of all form and content. By a kind of perverted logic, it turns to the past of oppressed people, and distorts, disfigures and destroys it” (Fanon 1963: 170).

11 Stilte “What history is changes with time and place or, better said, history reveals itself only through the production of specific narratives. What matters most are the process and conditions of production of such narratives. […] Only through that [analysis] can we discover the differential exercise of power that makes some narratives possible and silences others.” (Trouillot 1996:25)

12 'Politics of a lower frequency' “[the political] exists on a lower frequency, where it is played, danced, and acted, as well as sung and sung about, because words, even words stretched by melisma and supplemented or mutated by the screams which still index the conspicuous power of the slave sublime, will never be enough to communicate its unsayable claims to truth” (Gilroy 1993:37).

13 Herdenking van de slavernij Vanaf begin jaren '90: Surinameplein Besef Oosterpark, 2002 NiNsee Doorbreek de stilte Keti Koti festival

14 Surinameplein 1993

15 Herdenking van de slavernij Vanaf begin jaren '90: Surinameplein Besef Oosterpark, 2002 NiNsee Doorbreek de stilte Keti Koti festival

16 Oosterpark

17 Herdenking van de slavernij Vanaf begin jaren '90: Surinameplein Besef Oosterpark, 2002 NiNsee Doorbreek de stilte Keti Koti festival

18 Doorbreek de stilte

19 Herdenking van de slavernij Vanaf begin jaren '90: Surinameplein Besef Oosterpark, 2002 NiNsee Doorbreek de stilte Keti Koti festival

20 Keti koti festival

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25 “A no nyan m'e nyan di mi mengre so.” “Tan teri a no don.”

26 “Te mati kon na yu oso Gi en nyannyan a nyan Gi en watra a dringi Ma no puru yu bere g‘en” (Wekker 2006)

27 “Got one mind for white folk to see 'Nother for what I know is me.” popular slave aphorism, (Carpio 2008:xiii/ix)

28 Muziek en overleven “Our negroes gave no answer, but their eye-brows were knit; their foreheads became very much wrinkled; and they looked at each other with very expressive countenances […] I could not help observing the negroes, in whose humour a great alteration had evidently taken place. After rowing about ten minutes in the most profound silence, they began a song, which was not in Surinam negro language, but in their own native African tongue, which of course was understood by none in the barge but themselves. The tune was harsh and the words short, as if they were oppressed by the lips.” (Von Sack :77-78, as cited in Van Stipriaan 1993:161)

29 Muziek en politiek “[We need] to give full weight to the opacity of these texts wrought by toil, terror, and sorrow and composed under the whip and in fleeting moments of reprieve. Rather than consider black song as an index or mirror of the slave condition, this examination emphasizes the significance of opacity as precisely that which enables something in excess of the orchestrated amusements of the enslaved and which similarly troubles distinctions between joy and sorrow and toil and leisure.” (Hartman 1997:35)

30 Aesthetics of reticence A general sense or obligation, expressed in music and proverbs, that certain things are better left unsaid.

31 Conclusie Erfgoed, in- en uitsluiting Burgerschap en belonging Im/materieel erfgoed Macht en politiek Stilte en zwijgzaamheid


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