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Indicators of child poverty and child well-being in the EU: Suggestions for indicators and monitoring Child poverty and child well-being in Hungary and.

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Presentation on theme: "Indicators of child poverty and child well-being in the EU: Suggestions for indicators and monitoring Child poverty and child well-being in Hungary and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indicators of child poverty and child well-being in the EU: Suggestions for indicators and monitoring Child poverty and child well-being in Hungary and in the EU EU representation in Budapest 16 June, 2010 István György Tóth TARKI Social Research Institute

2 Outline The project and its context Domains of child poverty and well-being Methods of exploring and selecting indicators Suggestions: a new child indicator portfolio Overview of child well-being in the EU: selected indicators Conclusions

3 The „Study on child poverty” project Commissioned by: DG Employment of the European Commission, Unit E2 Consortium: Tárki Social Research Institute, Budapest Applica sprl, Brussels Steering Committe: Terry Ward (chair)Applica Michael F. FörsterOECD Hugh FrazerNational Univ. of Ireland Petra HoelscherUNICEF Eric MarlierCEPS/INSTEAD Holly SutherlandUniversity of Essex István György Tóth TÁRKI

4 Main tasks carried out within the project Task 1. Empirical analysis of child poverty Task 2. Assessment of the effectiveness of policies for combating child poverty Task 3. Recommendations for a limited set of indicators most relevant from a child perspective

5 The EU policy context of the project  2005: March EU Presidency Conclusions and Luxembourg Presidency initiative on “Taking forward the EU Social Inclusion Process”  2006: Commission’s Communication ‘Towards an EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child, Communication from the Commission’  Since 2006: streamlining of Social OMC, more systematic attention to children and reports and recommendations on tackling child poverty and social exclusion produced under PROGRESS by independent experts and anti-poverty networks  2007: EU Task-Force on Child poverty and Child Well-Being  2008: formal adoption of the report and their incorporation into the EU acquis, National Strategy Reports of child poverty  2009: „Study on child poverty and child well-being”  2010: planned publication of a Commission staff working paper on child poverty.

6 Starting point: Related projects: How does this project add to the process?  Contributes to developing tools to regularly monitor child poverty and child well-being in the Member States  It aims at filling in the Social OMC „reserved slot” for child well being indicator(s)  Provides recommendations for improving data infrastructure

7 Domains of child poverty and well-being ( according to the EU Task-Force report) A. Material well-being: factors relating to the material resources of the household that the child has access to or lacks during his/her development, which include indicators of (A1) income, (A2) material deprivation, (A3) housing, (A4) labour market attachment. B. Non-material dimensions of child well-being, which may reflect on both the resources a child has access or lacks during his/her development and outcomes in different stages of this development: (B1) education, (B2) health, (B3) exposure to risk and risk behaviour, (B4) social participation and relationships, family environment, (B5) local environment.

8 Selecting child well-being indicators (a) To capture the essence of the problem, we need indicators reflecting - well-being, predicting future prospects - attention to life cycle elements and intergenerational aspects - the level and distribution of well-being (social gap between the poorer and the more well-off) (b) be robust and statistically validated - assessment of the statistical reliability (level of mesurement error) - cross country variance (c) provide a sufficient level of cross countries comparability, - with use of internationally applied definitions and data collection standards (d) be built on available underlying data, be timely and susceptible to revision (e) should be responsive to policy interventions but not subject to manipulation

9  a broad based collection of potentially relevant indicators in each dimension  work on indicator development (customising the selection criteria)  suggestions for breakdowns wherever possible  to fill out an indicator fiche for each and every indicators (example)  statistical validation of all material indicators (where data allows)  identifying data gaps  formulating suggestions In search of additional indicators: tasks completed within the project

10 Conclusions of the paper (1-3): 1: Various child ages need to be reflected 2: As an immediate action, new health, education and risk behaviour indicators be introduced

11 Conclusions (3) There is a need for a comprehensive set of indicators to monitor child poverty and well-being The new set could:  reflect most of the child well-being dimensions as set out in the EU Task-Force report  incorporate OMC indicators already having a 0-17 age breakdown  include a few new material well-being indicators (educational deprivation and childcare)  include new breakdowns for the already existing indicators  a whole range of non-material indicators This suggestion  could be well based on the existing indicator development work  would be timely in 2010 (European year against social exclusion)

12 Child age groups Dimension0-5 (0-2, 3-5) A1: IncomePoverty rate Relative median poverty risk gap Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate Dispersion around the poverty threshold A2: Material deprivationPrimary deprivation Educational deprivation Primary deprivation Educational deprivation Secondary deprivation A3: HousingHousing costs Overcrowding Housing costs Overcrowding Housing costs Overcrowding A4: Labour market attachmentLiving in low work intensity (including jobless) households Child care Living in low work intensity (including jobless) households Child care Living in low work intensity (including jobless) households B1: EducationParticipation in pre-primary education ( Low) Reading literacy performance of pupils aged 10 (Low) Reading literacy performance of pupils aged 15 Early school-leavers (when ) B2: HealthInfant mortality (by SES) Perinatal mortality Vaccination Low birth weight Breastfeeding Overweight Fruit daily Breakfast every school day Self-perceived general health Physical activity Life expectancy at birth (by SES) B3: Exposure to risk and risk behaviour Teenage births Smoking Alcohol consumption Drug consumption B4: Social participation and relationships, family environment Share in single parent households B5: Local environmentCrime in the area is a problem Pollution or dirt is a problem in the area The suggested full portfolio of child indicators and age breakdowns

13 At-risk-of-poverty rates – overall population and children (percentage below 60% of the national equivalised median income), EU-27, 2007 Source: EUROSTAT. Notes: Countries are ranked by the at-risk-of-poverty rate of children. Confidence intervals are estimated for 24 countries only, since data on Bulgaria, Malta and Romania are not in the publicly available EU-SILC UDB 2007 (version ). Confidence intervals are provided for Germany, however the German sample is quota sample. A1: jövedelem Indikátor: szegénységi ráta

14 Relative median poverty gap for total population and children, EU-27, 2007 (%) Source: EUROSTAT. Note: Relative median poverty gap has been calculated as 60% of national equivalised median income. Countries are ranked by the relative median poverty gap for total population. A1: jövedelem Indikátor: szegénységi ráta

15 Primary indicator of material deprivation among children (0–17), EU-25,* 2007 Source: Own calculations based on EU-SILC 2007 (version ). Notes: *Excluding Malta. Confidence intervals are provided for Germany, however the German sample is quota sample. A2: anyagi depriváció Indikátor: depriváltság a 0-17 évesek között

16 Housing costs overburden rate among children (aged 0–17), EU-25,* 2007 Source: Own calculations based on EU-SILC 2007 (version ). Note: *Excluding Malta. A3: lakhatási költségek Indikátor: túlzott lakhatási költségek a 0-17 évesek között (népesség, %)

17 Overcrowding rate among children (aged 0– 17), EU-25,* 2007 Source: Own calculations based on EU-SILC 2007 (version ). Note: *Excluding Malta A3: lakhatási zsúfoltság Indikátor: túlzsúfolt lakásban élő gyermekek aránya

18 Difference in average reading literacy scores between pupils who have at least one parent who has completed tertiary education and pupils who have at least one parent with only lower secondary education (or below) Source: OECD/PISA. B1: oktatás Indikátor: írás/olvasás kompetencia társadalmi különbségei a szülő iskolázottsága szerint (15 évesek)

19 Difference in average reading literacy between 10-year-old pupils who have at least one parent who has completed tertiary education and pupils who have at least one parent with only lower secondary education (or below), 2006 Source: PIRLS. B1: oktatás Indikátor: írás/olvasás kompetencia társadalmi különbségei a szülő iskolázottsága szerint (10 évesek)

20 Percentage of 4-year-olds who are enrolled in education-oriented pre- primary institutions (2007) Source: Eurostat /LFS. B1: oktatás Indikátor: 4 évesek beiskolázottsági rátája

21 Infant mortality rate, EU- 27, 2007 Source: Data collected by Eurostat from the National Statistical Offices. ( ). B2: Egészségi állapot Indikátor: csecsemőhalandóság aránya

22 Low birth weight, EU-27, 2005 Source: OECD Family database, based on OECD Health Data 2007 and World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (Health for All database). ( ). B2: Egészségi állapot Indikátor: alacsony súllyal születettek aránya

23 11-year-olds who report being overweight or obese according to BMI, EU-27, 2005/06 Source: HBSC 2005/06. ( ) B2: Egészségi állapot Indikátor: túlsúlyosak aránya a 11 évesek között

24 Adolescent fertility rate, EU-27, 2005 Source: OECD based on EUROSTAT data (Eurostat Demographic Data and United Nations Statistical Division). B3: Kockázatos társadalmi viselkedésminták Indikátor: fiatalkorúak termékenységi rátája

25 15-year-olds who smoke at least once a week, EU-27, 2005/2006 Source: HBSC 2005/06. B3: Kockázatos társadalmi viselkedésminták Indikátor: legalább hetente dohányzó 15 évesek aránya

26 15-year-olds who have been drunk at least twice, EU-27, 2005/06 Source: HBSC 2005/06. B3: Kockázatos társadalmi viselkedésminták Indikátor: „legalább kétszer volt már részeg” 15 évesek aránya

27 15-year-olds who have ever used cannabis in their lives, EU-27, 2005/06 Source: HBSC 2005/06. B3: Kockázatos társadalmi viselkedésminták Indikátor: már legalább egyszer cannabist használó 15 évesek aránya

28  Context information is needed on child and family related social expenditures, within the OMC reporting routines  Further work on statistical validation necessitates opening up microdata access to some core datasets on non-material dimensions  Incentives to support substitute or alternative datasets in national contexts is needed Conclusions (4-6) There is a need to develop data infrastructure

29  … to monitor the social situation of the children of - migrants - Roma  … to further investigate the potential for utilising national administrative datasets  … to invest in panel surveys (national or EU level) to facilitate exploring causal relationships  … to involve researchers in questionnaire development Conclusions (7-11): Further attempts to improve data situation are needed …

30 Conclusions: - The Hungarian EU Presidency could take on the initiative promote extending Social OMC with indicators to monitor child well being - professional backing: the Tarki study - political backing: - commitment of DG EMPL - continued interest of Belgian Pres.

31 Final report is available at:


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