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Learning at the Workplace: Optimal Learning Environments Contact: Dr. Christof Nägele Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training SFIVET.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning at the Workplace: Optimal Learning Environments Contact: Dr. Christof Nägele Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training SFIVET."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning at the Workplace: Optimal Learning Environments Contact: Dr. Christof Nägele Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training SFIVET Kirchlindachstrasse 79 | CH-3052 Zollikofen | | Patrizia Hasler Schule für Gestaltung, Bern und Biel Schänzlihalde 31, CH Bern

2 The workplace as a site for learning gets more attention in many countries: A remark on the psychological importance of work

3 (1) work and personality (2) learning at the workplace a model (3) cognitive underpinnings of action regulation (4) context: Swiss VET-System

4 Dr. Christof Nägele, > product -> subject personality knowledge skills values Rubinstein, 1958, S. 704 (1) Work process forms...

5 Dr. Christof Nägele, Potential of learning in a work process Significant (society and Individuum) Direct feedback Immediate effect of learning Training effect Cooperation Hacker, W. (2005). Allgemeine Arbeitspsychologie: Psychische Regulation von Wissens-, Denk- und körperlicher Arbeit. Bern, CH: Verlag Hans Huber.

6 Dr. Christof Nägele, Quality of learning at the workplace depends on... Type of activity Support / coaching by trainer Type of interaction (with colleagues, customers,..) Development of individual and shared understanding Billett, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: strategies for effective practice. St Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

7 Dr. Christof Nägele, Reflexivity Reflexivity is expected to have an influence on task performance through the building of adequate individual and shared mental models. It is not the reflexivity intervention per se that does lead to better performance: The quality of the reflective process does make a difference! Better reflexivity depends on a better individual understanding of the task. Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Nägele, C., & Gurtner, A. (2002). Individual and group reflexivity, and its influence on shared mental models and performance in computer mediated groups.

8 Conceptual Model

9 Dr. Christof Nägele, Hacker, W., & Skell, W. (1993). Lernen in der Arbeit [Learning on the job]. Berlin, D und Bonn, D: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung BiBB. Curriculum Diagnostics Methods / Didactics Learning Materials Learning Organization Assessment (2) Learning - Job Design - Trainer

10 Dr. Christof Nägele, Job Design / Task Hacker, W., & Skell, W. (1993). Lernen in der Arbeit [Learning on the job]. Berlin, D und Bonn, D: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung BiBB. Curriculum Diagnostics Methods / Didactics Learning Materials Learning Organization Assessment

11 Dr. Christof Nägele, Job Design / Task Hacker, W., & Skell, W. (1993). Lernen in der Arbeit [Learning on the job]. Berlin, D und Bonn, D: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung BiBB. Workplace Trainer Curriculum Diagnostics Methods / Didactics Learning Materials Learning Organization Assessment

12 Dr. Christof Nägele, Learning at the workplace Individual process Social process Moderated by > Job design / Task > Trainer

13 Dr. Christof Nägele, (3) Cognitive underpinnings of action regulation Action and action regulation depend on conceptual knowledge, on mental maps, or mental models. Also handicraft, manual work is first of all: cognitive work. Hacker, W. (2003). Action Regulation Theory: A practical tool for the design of modern work processes? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(2),

14 Swiss iVET/VET

15 Dr. Christof Nägele, Bundesamt für Berufsbildung und Technologie BBT. (2011). Berufsbildung in der Schweiz. Fakten und Zahlen [Vocational and professional education in Switzerland. Facts and Figures]. (4) Swiss Educational System

16 Dr. Christof Nägele, One task – Three partners

17 Dr. Christof Nägele, (...)

18 Dr. Christof Nägele, Why firms offer apprenticeship-places? Tradition Balance of cost – benefit Professional pride Input of new knowledge Contribution to the professional development...

19 Study Apprenticeship Polygrafie

20 Dr. Christof Nägele, The mere execution of a task is not learning The training in the company has to establish the transfer from theory to practice. This cannot be achieved by simply participating in work related activities. Jobs and tasks need to be designed such that learning can happen. The workplace trainer has to assist/support the learning process.

21 Dr. Christof Nägele, Sample (spring 2010) Viscom, employers association, printing industry Apprenticeship: i) media production ii) media design N = 414 – all apprentices of the 2 nd and 3 rd year Age: 2nd year 18.6 (SD 2.25), 3rd year 19.7 (SD 1.9) 2/3 female (N=263) Method: Supervised online questionnaire during training in inter-company courses

22 Dr. Christof Nägele, Apprenticeship Polygrafie

23 Dr. Christof Nägele, Higher Education: Tertiary A or Tertiary B 40% ?

24 Dr. Christof Nägele, Determinants of favorable workplace learning Individual Processes - Individual Factors: motivation, persistence, self-efficacy, cognitive flexibility,... Social Processes - Team: Support, good relationship quality,... Job design: variability significance, autonomy, task identity, challenging work,... Trainer: monitoring/guidance, expert in the domaine, psychological and pedagogical expertise,... Curriculum: relevant domain specific contents

25 Dr. Christof Nägele, Dependent Measures Skills, workplace Training satisfaction

26 Dr. Christof Nägele, Satisfaction with education and training

27 Dr. Christof Nägele, Company: Satisfaction with training

28 Dr. Christof Nägele, Self-evaluation: Workplace Skills VariabilitySignificanceAutonomyFeedback Task identity no effect

29 Dr. Christof Nägele, Work related attitudes

30 Dr. Christof Nägele, School grades

31 Dr. Christof Nägele, Domain Specific Structural Knowledge Curriculum Extraction of Key Concepts Validation: Experts Rating: Apprentices & Experts Network Construction Network Similarity Schvaneveldt, R. W., Durso, F. T., Goldsmith, T. E., Breen, T. J., & Cooke, N. J. (1985). Measuring the structure of expertise. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 23,

32 Dr. Christof Nägele, Domain Specific Structural Knowledge

33 Dr. Christof Nägele, Domain Specific Structural Knowledge

34 Dr. Christof Nägele, Trust and Autonomy

35 Dr. Christof Nägele, Trust and Autonomy

36 Dr. Christof Nägele, Three learning places – one curriculum Content School Company I-C training

37 Dr. Christof Nägele, Knowledge transfer between the three learning places

38 Dr. Christof Nägele, Learning at the Workplace: Optimal Learning Environments We see the important role of the trainer. Trust is important. Trust seems to root in good work related instructional skills of the trainer. It starts with the work allocation, includes adequate instructional techniques, a honest and direct feedback as well as a positive handling of errors.

39 Dr. Christof Nägele, The mere execution of a task is not learning Jobs and tasks need to be designed such that learning can happen. => Demanding tasks, variability, scope of action The workplace trainer has to assist/support the learning process. => Work allocation, high demands, honest and direct feedback Exchange of knowledge, skills and values between the three leraning places must be established. => Better use of knowledge and skills from all learning places at the workplace. To discuss: the role of the trainer.


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