1XADO – TECHNOLOGY modifies friction surfaces XADO – TECHNOLOGY modifies friction surfaces. This is a brand-new, environmentally friendly, energy saving technology for the equipment maintenance and repair Scientific research Institute Chin Huan University Staff member Lyu Dzja Sjun
2In the whole world no less than 1/3 of all produced energy is wasted to reduce friction. About 2% of the national economy GDP is lost because of friction.
3Ways to reduce friction losses: Creation of new wear-resistant materialsChanging of operating conditions of the friction surfaces by using special additives to lubricantsUsing new types of top quality lubricants
4XADO – technology has triple effect: lubricating, restoring and surface modification. Today this technology is the most effective way to reduce friction. Very efficient way to save energy and resources. The most simple and economical way to harden the surface.
5Forming process and characteristics of the metalloceramics layer
612V- 90 diesel engine of the drilling rig worked in Sheng Li oilfield 12V- 90 diesel engine of the drilling rig worked in Sheng Li oilfield. Having been treated by XADO revitalizant it operated 2000 hours in excess of planned rate.
7This water pump gear shift of a locomotive was treated by XADO and it ran 400 000 km extra.
8XADO laboratory test Laboratory friction machine Test period hours after XADO revitalizant applicationCircular lubricating, oil.Lubrication intensity - 3 drops per second
9Test conditions: Rotation speed – 800 rpm; Load on the roller increased after a certain period of time:operating hours – load 10 kg;operating hours – load 15 kg;operating hours – load 25 kg.
10Surface hardness increased significantly and reached the level of the diamond-like material
11Table of disc surface hardness on the wear traces Friction machine1- before test2- after test
12After 300 hours of tests on the friction machine Tables and diagrams of nanohardness of wear traces on the disc surface at a depth of 50 nm and 20 nmAfter 300 hours of tests on the friction machine
13300 hours of roller operation during test period Table of measurements and a diagram of nanohardness of the roller friction surface at a depth of 50 nm after tests on the friction machine300 hours of roller operation during test period
14Operating time of the engine in excess of the planned rate - Table of measurements and a diagram of nanohardness of the 12V- 90 diesel engine cylinder (Sheng Li Oilfield) at a depth of 50 nmOperating time of the engine in excess of the planned rate -2000 hours
15Average nanohardness values: 1 – disc at a depth of 50 nm;2 – disc at a depth of 20 nm;3 – roller;4 – gear wheel of the water pump;5 – cylinder of 12V- 90 diesel engine.
16Roughness of the working surfaces treated by XADO decreases reaching the smoothness level of the mirror surface
17Results of Noncontact measurements of the surface nanoroughness in the 12V- 90 engine cylinder. Three-dimensional device for nanoroughness measurement
18Table of nanoroughness measurements in three points of the working surface of 12V- 90 engine cylinderMeasurement numberRa, nmRq, nmRz, nmRt, nm123.6736.26732.7928.99229.3938.94473.3830.6327.1440.2934.152030Average value26.7338.47713.38
21XADO metalloceramics layer is a thin colorless coating. Its thickness can vary from 10 nm to several microns depending on the conditions of friction.The general structure of the coatingis similar to that ofthe diamond-like material.
22Chemical analysis of the cross section of the friction machine disc Chemical analysis of the cross section of the friction machine disc. The analysis was made with the device in a non-contact way by linear displacement of the probe. Red graph – content of carbon at different depth. Green graph – content of iron at different depth.
23Photo on the left – cross section of the friction machine roller (sample with black protecting rubber).On the right – table and diagram of the elements content in the surface layer.3.8%C5.5%C11.32%C
24Photos of the sample with different enlargement, cross section of 12V- 90 diesel engine cylinder surface, drilling rig.А – cylinder material;В – XADO surface layer;С – special protecting rubber which is necessary in order to prepare the sample for the analysis.
25Analysis of the 12V- 90 diesel engine cylinder surface. Percentage of chemical elements in the test points:А – at a depth of 6 micronВ – on the cylinder surface (XADO metalloceramics layer)С – protective rubber (special sample for analysis)7.09%C7.95%C
26Visible spectrum of the disc surface wear «RAMAN» device. Friction machine disc. Each graph on the upper diagram – measurements in two points.On the lower diagram – measurement in the spot of the burr (red graph), black graph – measurement results for graphite.Visible spectrum of the disc surface wear
27«Raman» device Friction machine roller Results of the measurements in the second point (cavity in form of a scratch)
28«Raman» deviceFriction machine roller - result of the measurements in the third point(cavity in form of a pit)
29«Raman» device Friction machine roller. Result of the measurements in the forth point (separate area).
30Laboratory analysis of the diamond-like layer «Raman» deviceOn the left – optical spectrum of the friction machine roller.On the right – summary diagram of:smooth roller surface (black graph 1);scratches on the roller surface (red graph 2);deepenings on the roller surface (green graph 3);- separate area on the roller surface (blue graph 4).
31Laboratory analysis of the diamond-like layer. «Raman» devicered graph – XADO coating on the surface of 12V- 90 diesel engine cylinder;black graph – graphite analysis.
32Results of analysis of the friction machine roller photoelectron spectrum (XPS – analysis) Chart of the photoelectron spectrum elements. XPS - analysis
33chemical elements percentage Table of thechemical elements percentagein the surface layer.XPS - analysis
3412V- 90 diesel engine cylinder Measurement of the elements percentageat a depth of the surface coatingSurface of the 12V- 90 diesel engine cylinder
35Friction coefficient decreased significantly (less than 0.01)
36Results of the friction coefficient measurements before XADO treatment Results of the friction coefficient measurements before XADO treatment after XADO treatment
37Friction machine Wear comes to «0», moreover the working surface is restored
38Diagram of the wear on the friction machine (roller-disc) Diagram of the wear on the friction machine (roller-disc). (black graph – oil without XADO, red – oil containing XADO).
39Friction machine. Wear-out percent of the roller (0-16 hours of operation on oil without XADO; hours of operation – oil containing XADO). % - wear, h – hours of operating;
40Practical examples of wear restoration using XADO-technology
41From December 2002 to August 2004 tests of the diesel locomotives, DF8B model (№5317; №5319), were carried out on the territory of the “ХАНИ” railway. After using XADO the locomotive ran extra km and a mid-life repair was made. It ran km till May 2005 and a mid-life repair was made again.
42Main journals of the crankshaft 230 мм №1 №3 №5 №7 №9 Measurements results of the deviations of crankshaft journals diameter of the DF 8B locomotive engine after treatmentand km runMain journals of the crankshaft 230 мм№ № № №7 №9(initial)(mid-life repair)Rod journals of the crankshaft 210 мм№ № № №7(initial)(mid-life repair)
43Measurements of crankshaft journals of the DF 8B locomotive engine after treatment and km runWear of the main journals of the crankshaft 230 mm, mm№1 № № №7 №9Wear of the Rod journals of the crankshaft 210 mm, mm№1 № №5 №7
44Sheng Yang province, China Aircraft engines producing plant «Rassvet». Coordinate boring machine, vertical-type machine,produced in France.Results of the spindle vibration level measurementsafter XADO treatmentDate of the measurementSpindle vibration, vertical(mm)Spindle vibration, horizontal (mm)Spindle revolutions(rpm)Time of operation after XADO treatment(hours)0.0500.020100.0300.0161260.0180.0093820.0150.0064200.0120.005800
45XADO products in comparison with regular oils have a fundamental difference in working surface modification
46of different oil additives Molecular structureof different oil additivesChemically active substancesSurface-active substancesAnti-burr additives
47Boundary friction of the surface Liquid frictionBoundary friction of the surface
48Examples of operation without oil after XADO treatment in presence of notaries 1. February 10, Sya Li taxi with 3-cylinder engine, city of Tyan Din. 660 km run, no breaking2. April 14, Audi А6 and Foukan, ran 326 km in mountains and on the highway without oil ( out of which 160 km off the road in mountains), no breaking3. June 18, Volkswagen Jetta, ran without oil 108 km of the Pekin 5th ring, no breaking
49Traditional greases do not have restoring properties In recent years the researchers added to the grease solid grains of such chemical elements as: Cu, Ag,TiO2, SiO2, as well as diamonds. In this case forming of the continuous layer on the friction surfaces did not occur.
50Layer on the friction surface after adding hard grains to the grease
51XADO technology has perfect restoring properties. Its secret consists in the ability of XADO particles to capture iron particles and to bring them back to wear surface, forming a new modified layer.
53Results of ferrographic analysis of laboratory oil sample in the friction machine XADO compound is added to oil. Wear intensity, it is defined according to iron content in oil.
5403-3603-2403-12Photos of oil samples in the friction machine containing iron particles03-4803-60
55Bewick State registration number № H68675 Oil volume of each sample –1 ml.After the first 450 km run the sample of oil was taken for analysis of iron content and XADO revitalizant for gasoline engines was added. Then the samples were taken after 600 km;1600 km, 3600 km and 6600 km run.Below you can see the photos of corresponding samples: H , H ,H ,H ; H
56Relation between intensity of H68675 engine wear and the distance run
5716004506003600Photos of H68675 engine oil samples6600
58Scan of the surface of 12V-90 engine cylinder with XADO layer
59Stages of restoring with XADO compounds 1. Superfitting2. Energy activity of XADO particles3. Adhesion of particles to the friction surface4. Diffusion of XADO particles to the surface layer5. Filling-in of micro roughnesses and formation of the metalloceramics layer
60Scheme of formation of XADO coating on friction surfaces
66Main research tasks:To define the principles of XADO technology operation and to determine the test methods.To extend the area of application, constantly improve the technology application methods.To investigate new area of application in order to extend capabilities of traditional treatment of equipment.4. To analyze and develop constantly XADO technology.