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European Report on Development 2014 “Financing and other means of implementation in the post-2015 context” Athens, 3 June 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "European Report on Development 2014 “Financing and other means of implementation in the post-2015 context” Athens, 3 June 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Report on Development 2014 “Financing and other means of implementation in the post-2015 context” Athens, 3 June 2014

2 ERD 2014 – background Annual report commissioned by European Commission and 4 Member States. This will be 5 th edition to be launched in December Process: – Consultations – Drafting reports Main report (ERD team; around 25 researchers) Background papers (academics) Country illustrations (country teams in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Indonesia, Tanzania, Mauritius, Moldova) Target group varies by report: EU development officials & beyond. Now: Financing for Development Processes, UN Open Working Group, etc

3 ERD2014 research question “How can financial resources be most effectively mobilised and channeled and how can they be combined with selected non- financial means of implementation, to effectively support a transformative post agenda?”

4 Since 2000: Millennium Development Goals 8 MDGs, poverty, health, education, partnerships (UN, 2000) Monterrey 2002 Financing for Development to finance MDGs Implementation / financing of MDGs: – Finance needs studies (UN Sachs, World Bank, etc) – Aid was often seen as addressing needs – Aid (especially for social sectors) increased from $50 bn a year in 2002 to $130 bn a year now

5 The incremental costs to reach development goals, $ bn annually

6 Aid Millennium Development Goals Examples: MDG 1 = poverty MDG 2 = education MDG 4-6 = health

7 Finance a transformative post-2015 agenda Post-2015 agenda under discussion (“UN Open Working Group”). We describe sustainable development transformations: – Allocating labour towards high productivity activities whilst creating employment – Zero poverty, whilst reducing inequalities – Energy access, whilst reducing CO2 emissions and preserving biodiversity  The role of finance in now much more complex?

8 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

9 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

10 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

11 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

12 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

13 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

14 Specific policies for effective mobilisation of finance (national / local / global policies) Supporting policies (Non-financial MOI) for effective use of finance (national / local / global policies) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Sustainable development transformations (economic, social, environmental) Financial flows (public and private, domestic and international) Enablers Quality of institutions Capital (infrastructure), labour, technology Connectivity / integration

15 Finance for development (some emerging issues) Complex and messy! Importance of public finance, but its role is evolving An important role for ODA, but in a supportive/catalytic rather than delivery role Beyond aid: Private sector flows / instruments as countries evolve Beyond finance: Context of finance matters

16 Finance flows (% of GDP) change by income levels (beyond aid) Source: all WDI countries, : Mauritius at 9.5 ($13.000)

17 Why beyond finance? Two examples

18 Importance of supportive policies – policies to reduce interest rate spread Private investors in Africa face an additional costs of around US$ 15 billion (2 per cent of credit extended). Competition & innovation policies, (non-financial MOI) that would lower the African interest rate spread to the average of low and middle income countries increase availability of finance by 1.2% of GDP and investment by 6 per cent. = 2 % points

19 Estimating sustainable energy finance needs Difference in low carbon energy needs owing to different demand scenarios

20 Impact of better global mitigation scenarios on mobilisation of climate finance Proposal Revenue mobilised (USD billions) Impact of scenarios and carbon price Unconditional pledges Conditional pledges 2⁰C Norwegian proposal The high volume of emission allowances auctioned under the unconditional pledges does not compensate for the low prices, therefore the conditional pledge scenario mobilises more funds (the price effect is greater than the volume effect). The most stringent C0 2 scenario (2⁰C) mobilises the greatest revenue. Swiss proposal The higher revenue under the pledges scenario is caused by the higher emissions in these scenarios. The carbon price has a lesser effect on revenue than the scale of emissions. IET levy 2<11 The revenue is low, and influenced by level of emissions to a greater extent than carbon price. Bunker fuel emissions tax In all three scenarios significant revenue is mobilised. The tax level was set at the global carbon price – the predictability could be increased by making taxation level independent of the carbon price. The carbon price (or scenario) however has a strong impact on revenue. Increasing CO2 reductions = higher carbon price = more funds

21 ERD examples that support narrative Beyond aid (Tanzania hydropower requires different types of finance) Beyond finance (Tanzania workshop discussed role of supporting regulatory framework for renewable energy investment) Examine finance in a transformative context (role of aid the compensate losers in Mauritius)

22 Concluding issues Finance for Development framework to support a post agenda More complex than implementation of Monterrey / MDG suggested – Difference finance sources – Finance alone is not enough: complementary policies – New role for different types of finance in different transformative contexts How is this signalled in a new framework?

23 Thank you! For further information please contact: ERD2014 Project Manager – Gillian Hart ERD2014 Project Officer – Leah Worrall


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