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Organisatie van het bestuur van de onderneming Dagdeel 3 Vrijdag 9 mei 2008 2:00 – 5:30 pm Docent: Dr. M.P. Goede.

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Presentation on theme: "Organisatie van het bestuur van de onderneming Dagdeel 3 Vrijdag 9 mei 2008 2:00 – 5:30 pm Docent: Dr. M.P. Goede."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organisatie van het bestuur van de onderneming Dagdeel 3 Vrijdag 9 mei :00 – 5:30 pm Docent: Dr. M.P. Goede

2 Agenda TijdInhoud 2:00 – 2:30The Corporation (DVD) 2:30 – 3:00De historical and theoritical context 3:00 – 3:30In side the corporation 3:30 – 4:00Power around organizations 4:00 – 4:30Governance Curacao 4:30 – 5:30The cultural context

3 The Corporation (DVD) 2:00 – 2:30

4 The historical and theoritical context 2:30 – 3:00

5 (Adam Smith, 1776) The directors of such [joint-stock] companies, however, being the managers rather of other people’s money than of their own, it cannot well be expected, that they should watch over it with the same anxious vigilance with which the partners in a private copartnery frequently watch over their own.... Negligence and profusion, therefore, must always prevail, more or less, in the management of the affairs of such a company.

6 The Corporation (Joel Bakan,2004) Chapters –The corporation’s rise to dominance –Business as usual –The externalizing machine –Democracy –Corporation unlimited –Reckoning

7 The corporation’s rise to dominance Vermeer, J. (2006), Corporate Governance; Theory, History and Practice –Adam Smith 1776 –Introduction CG his not new –Theoretical concepts Agency Theory or Principle Agent Theory Models of CG

8 Principle Agent Theory Ross (1973) Jensen (1976) –Conflict between management and owner Owner is shareholders Has only residual claim

9 Two models of CG Anglo-American/ Financial Market Model –Ownership widely spread –Share prices rule Stakeholders Model –Big shareholders rule

10 History 1602 – 1799 VOC –Board of Seventeen Lord –Shareholders were neglected –1622 Committee of Nine to advise the Board Audit Committee Mississippi Company British South Sea Company

11 Early industrialization –Entrepreneurial capitalism Late industrialization –Managerial capitalism Information age –Institutional capitalism

12 Conclusions CG is not new Managers –Need to direct –Need to be controlled –Are accountable Bad Governance is not the consequence of poor structures but of GREED

13 From Government to Governance

14 Organizations changed (Castells)

15 From Government to Governance

16 In side the corporation 3:00 – 3:30

17 Henry Mintzberg

18 We live in a world of organizations

19 Organizing Division of task and coordination This is a different question then: What is an organization

20 Five coordinating mechanisms Mutual adjustment: informal communication Direct supervision: one individual takes responsibility for the work of others Standardization –Work: programmed –Output: product and performance are specified –Skills: training required

21 The five coordinating mechanisms are a continuum

22 Five basic parts Strategic apex: in charge and make sure the organization serves mission and those who have power Middle management: joins the apex and the operating core Operating core: basic work related directly to the production Support Staff: serve to effect standardization Technostructure: provides support to the parts outside the operating workflow

23 Five basic parts

24 The organization as a system of flows Formal authority Regulated flows –Operating work flow –Regulated control flows –Regulated information flows Informal communication Work constellations Ad hoc decisions process

25 Design Parameters

26 Design of position –Job specializations –Behavior formalization –Training and indoctrinations Design of superstructure –Unit grouping –Unit size Design of lateral linkages –Planning and control system –Liaison devices Design of decision-making system –Vertical decentralization –Horizontal decentralization

27 Part III The contingency factors

28 Age & size Technical system Environment Power

29 The effective structuring A close fit between contingency factors and design parameters A internal consistency among design parameters Consistency among design parameters and contingency factors

30 Age & Size The older the organization the more formalized its behavior Structure reflect the age of founding of the industry The larger the organization the more elaborated its structure, that is, the more specialized its task, the more differentiated its units, and the more developed its administrative components The larger the organization, the larger the size of its units The larger the organization the more formalized its behavior

31 Stages of structural development As organizations grow, they go through structural transitions, changes in kind rather than degree. –Craft Entrepreneurial –Bureaucratic –Divisionalized –Matrix

32 Technical system Regulating dimension Sophistication dimension

33 Technical system The more regulating the technical system, the more formalized the operating work and the more bureaucratic the structure of the operating core The more sophisticated the technical system, the more elaborate the administrative structure, specially the larger and more professional the support staff, the greater the the selective decentralization (to that staff), and the greater the use of liaison devices (to coordinate the work of the staff)

34 Environment The more dynamic the environment, the more organic the structure The more complex the environment, the more decentralized the structure Extreme hostility in its environment drives any organization to centralize its structure temporarily Disparities in the environment encourage the organization to decentralize selectively

35 Power The greater the external control of the organization, the more centralized and formalized its structure The power needs of the members tend to generate structures that are excessively centralized Fashion favors the structure of the day (and of the culture), sometimes even when inappropriate

36 The contingency factors by level in the structure Strategic apex: environment Middle management: Age and Size Operating core: Technical system

37 Simple structure Direct supervision Strategic apex Vertical and horizontal centralization

38 Machine bureaucracy Standardization of work processes Technostructure Limited horizontal decentralization

39 Professional bureaucracy Standardization of skills Operating core Vertical and horizontal decentralization

40 Divisionalized form Standardization of out put Middle line Limited vertical decentralization

41 Adhocracy (two types) Mutual adjustment Support staff Selective decentralization

42 Concluding pentagon The five pulls The five pure types The basis for describing hybrids For describing transitions

43 The organization is driven towards one of the configurations in a search for harmony in its structure. Some hybrids are dysfunctional others are logical. Transitions –Simple to machine –Adhocracy to machine bureaucracy

44 The organization of the board

45 One tier – Two tier Next month

46 Colley, (2003), Corporate Governance Incorporation/ charter –Corporate Name –Purpose –Registered Office or Agent –Authorized Capital Stock –Bylaws

47 Bylaws The number of directors on the board The number of insiders and outsiders The length of terms The various board committees and their charges Details about the annual meeting of shareholders The conditions under which the proxy statements will be issued to share holders How directors will vote and how the votes will be counted The election and duties of corporate and board officers

48 Major Considerations Relative to the Bylaws How much flexibility should be given to shareholders to call special meetings and to present proposals for voting?

49 Board Committees Committee of outside directors Executive Committee Compensation Committee Audit Committee Nominating and Governance Committee Other Standing Committees Special Committees

50 Power around organizations 3:30 – 4:00

51 Mintzberg, H. (1987*), Power in and around organizations –The origins of the attack on the corporation Economic power has become highly concentrated This has social consequences Expectations on economic and social behavior has changed Corporations are controlled by their administrators and there is no legitimate base for this

52 The dimensions Goals favored –Social goals – Economic goals Disciplinary perspective –Sociological – Managerial – Economics Interpersonal relations –Conflict – Harmony External means of influence Control of the corporation Power configuration –Instrument – Political Arena – Closed system Political stance –Radical – Liberal – Skeptic – Conservative - Reactionary

53 –The positions Nationalize it Democratize it Regulate it Pressure it Trust it Ignore it Induce it Restore it

54 –Nationalize it Instrument in hands of the government –Democratize it External representation Internal participation –Regulate it More formal constrains by government –Pressure it By special interest groups –Trust it –Ignore it –Induce it –Restore it

55 Governance Curacao 4:00 – 4:30

56 The bullets of Dick (2002) Overheid stelt geen doel en geen criteria Overheid heeft ook sociale doelstellingen en moet bevriend blijven met iedereen Overheid geeft geen aansturing Overheid bemoeit zich wel met de verkeerde dingen Er is geen leiderschap en geen gedegen controle

57 RvC krijgt geen aanwijzingen van aandeelhouder Directeur bepaalt zelf het beleid en het beheer van NV

58 Bepaalde NV’s hebben een slecht beleid, investeren miljoenen in projecten waar geen positieve resultaten uitkomen. Genoemd werd UTS met dochtermaatschappijen. Aqualectra met inefficiente investeren uit het verleden en DOK waar de overheid de garanties betaald

59 Er wordt niet afgerekend – geen accountablity Gevolgen: inefficienty, niet transparant Meerdendeel van het publiek heeft onvoldoende informatie en kennis en kan daardoor moeilijk of niet beoordelen Te vaak emotionele discussies waardoor niemand een goed overwogen beslissing neemt

60 Vakbonden richten zich op korte termijn doelstellingen zoals arbeidsplaatsen en ziet de visie meerdere jaren over het hoofd Overheid moet overgaan tot privatisering maar er moeten bepaalde voorwaaden aan verbonden zijn

61 Privatisering wordt vaak te eng bekeken. Privatiseren betekent niet zomaar verkopen. Privatiseren is o.a. een partnership zoeken voor nieuwe marktuitbreiding middels kapitaal- en knowledge injectie en die een toegevoegde waarde heeft voor de efficiency van de NV’s met het gevolg dat de gemeenschap kwaliteit krijgt van het aangeleverde product

62 Curacao must focus on variations of the Simple Structure

63 The cultural context 4:30 – 5:30

64 There is no just one type of society Charismatic Traditional Rational

65 The development of Curacao Pre colonial Colonial –Slavery Industrial –Shell Post colonial –Tourism –Off shore New economy

66 GovernmentAssociationsGlobal Business Semi Government FoundationsLocal Business


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