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Sub-department of Environmental Technology 06-0068 Energie uit water www.wetsus.nl www.ete.wur.nl prof.dr.ir. Cees J.N. Buisman KIVI/NIRIA 16 oktober 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-department of Environmental Technology 06-0068 Energie uit water www.wetsus.nl www.ete.wur.nl prof.dr.ir. Cees J.N. Buisman KIVI/NIRIA 16 oktober 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Energie uit water prof.dr.ir. Cees J.N. Buisman KIVI/NIRIA 16 oktober 2006

2 Sub-department of Environmental Technology De wereldcapaciteit wordt overschreden

3 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Bio-energie op dit moment belangrijkste renewable Source IAE 2003

4 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Biomassa is geen schone brandstof Source: Exploring the future Shell International

5 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Primaire productie Suiker energie Primaire productie Acetaat energie Bio-energie acetaat ipv suiker

6 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Via acetaat is er veel meer energiepotentieel in biomassa Source SenterNovem 2003

7 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Schone conversie essentieel WET BIOMASS Hydrogen : 3 $ct/MJ Ethanol : 3 $ct/MJ Electricty: 2 $ct/MJ Methane: 1 $ct/MJ via acetate

8 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Elektriciteitsproductie uit Rioolwater Biobrandstofcel+ 2 kWh/kg COD Aërobe zuivering- 0,5 kWh/kg COD Anaërobe zuivering+ 0,9 kWh/kg COD

9 Sub-department of Environmental Technology COD = C hemical O xygen D emand Used to generalize all dissolved (bio)-oxidizable material in wastewaters. Value expresses the amount of oxygen needed to completely oxidize the (bio)-oxidizable material. Represents the amount of potential energy contained in the wastewater. COD

10 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Electrochemically Active Micro-organisms COD in Wastewater (e.g. fatty acids) e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- BIOANODEBIOANODE Biological Anode Electrons

11 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Electrochemically Active Micro-organisms Bio-electrochemistry Source:

12 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Nano Wires Source Nature Reviews 2006

13 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Glucose:  C 6 H 12 O H 2 O  6 CO H e - Acetic Acid:  CH 3 COOH + 2 H 2 O  2 CO H e - Sulfur:  S H 2 O  SO H e - Etc. These electrons are released at a high energy level! Electron production Biological anodes

14 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Biological Anode:  CH 3 COOH + 2 H 2 O  2 CO H e - Cathode:  2 O H e -  4 H 2 O Overall:  CH 3 COOH + 2 O 2  2 CO H 2 O + electricity  In theory: ~1 Volt Example Acetic Acid Microbial Fuel Cell

15 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Microbial Fuel Cell Glucose/CO 2 (-0.41 Volt) Acetic Acid/CO 2 (-0.27 Volt) Energie Opbrengst Bacteriën O 2 /H 2 O (0.82 Volt) Bio-electricity (+1.02 Volt) Energy Consumption Bacteria I -0.5 I -0.4 I -0.3 I -0.2 I -0.1 I 0.0 I 0.1 I 0.2 I 0.3 I 0.4 I 0.5 I 0.6 I 0.7 I 0.8 I 0.9 I 1.0 Bio-Anode Cathode Biological Anode Potential (~ -0.2 Volt) Energy Consumption Bacteria (= Potential loss)

16 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Microbial Fuel Cell AnodeCathode e-e- e-e- COD CO 2 + H + O 2 + H + H2OH2O = Electrochemically Active MO H+H+ Air H2OH2O CO 2 Exhaust Wastewater (COD-rich) Effluent (COD-poor)

17 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Configurations

18 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Performance Perspectives  Power Density: 1000 W/m 3  Voltage: Volt  Efficiency: ~60% Status  Power Density: ~100 W/m 3  Voltage: Volt  Efficiency: 15-30% For comparison: conventional anaerobic treatment coupled to a gasmotor also produces approximately 1000 W/m 3.

19 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Bio electrochemie maakt grote stappen voorwaarts COMMERCIEEL INTERESSANT

20 Sub-department of Environmental Technology The next step ELECTRICITY MICROBIAL FUEL CELL CO 2 ASSIMILATES SOLAR ENERGY O2O2

21 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Biological Anode:  CH 3 COOH + 2 H 2 O  2 CO H e - Cathode:  8 H e -  4 H 2 Overall:  CH 3 COOH + 2 H 2 O  2 CO H 2  In theory: Volt required  In practice:<0.5 Volt required Example Acetic Acid Biocatalysed Electrolysis

22 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Biocatalysed Electrolysis Glucose/CO 2 (-0.41 Volt) Acetic Acid/CO 2 (-0.27 Volt) Energie Opbrengst Bacteriën H+/H 2 (-0.42 Volt) Hydrogen production requires an input of electricity (-0.22 Volt) Energy Consumption Bacteria (= Potential loss) I -0.5 I -0.4 I -0.3 I -0.2 I -0.1 I 0.0 I 0.1 I 0.2 I 0.3 I 0.4 I 0.5 I 0.6 I 0.7 I 0.8 I 0.9 I 1.0 Biological Anode Potential (~ -0.2 Volt) Bio-Anode Cathode

23 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Biocatalysed Electrolysis AnodeCathode e-e- e-e- COD CO 2 + H + H+H+ H2H2 = Electrochemically Active MO H+H+ CO 2 H2H2 Power Supply Wastewater (COD-rich) Effluent (COD-poor)

24 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Configuration Power Supply Electrochemical Cell

25 Sub-department of Environmental Technology kg COD 2 kWh 1.6 m 3 H 2 Bio-electrochemical System

26 Sub-department of Environmental Technology Manure NL 675 MW (5.4% NL consumption) 4.6 billion m 3 H 2 (79 % car km NL) Sewage NL 160 MW (1.3 % NL consumption) 1.1 billion m 3 H 2 (19 % car km NL) Bio-electrochemical Processes Electricity and hydrogen from sustainable sources

27 Sub-department of Environmental Technology


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