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Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 1 Highlights from the Large Hadron Collider Jos Engelen CERN Physics at the Terascale The LHC:

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Presentation on theme: "Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 1 Highlights from the Large Hadron Collider Jos Engelen CERN Physics at the Terascale The LHC:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Highlights from the Large Hadron Collider Jos Engelen CERN Physics at the Terascale The LHC: brief overview and status The LHC experiments: brief overview and status

2 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Standard Model and Beyond(?) 2 x8 gauge The Supersymmetric world? One supersymmetric partner for each ‘standard’ particle – the Higgs sector becomes slightly more complicated: 5 supersymmetric Higgs bosons H The Higgs sector – ‘the unknown’

3 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, The ‘Standard Model’ is a wonderful model for describing the fundamental particles and fields and their interactions, it provides a quantitative description of all experimental results so far, but: the model invokes a mechanism for dealing with mass: it is an empirical fact that certain field particles (W, Z bosons) carry mass, incorporating this in the theory is highly non-trivial – it requires the introduction of a new field (Higgs field) and corresponding particle (‘the Higgs’): this particle has never been found by an experiment  it will be at the LHC the model would ‘go wrong’ at high energy without the Higgs particle (or other ‘new physics’) ‘unification of forces’ at very high energy could be revealed by a new trend setting in at LHC energy: ‘supersymmetry’

4 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, ‘The Terascale’ Based on ‘extrapolations’ from our present understanding and on quite general theoretical insights we expect the ‘new physics’ to manifest itself at an energy around or below 1 Tera-electronVolt = electronVolt, i.e. at the Terascale accessible at the LHC for the first time (and only at the LHC for years to come!)

5 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Quark Gluon Plasma The LHC will also provide Pb Pb collisions at TeV allowing unique contributions to the study of a quark gluon plasma

6 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Accelerator and Experiments Underground circular tunnel 27 km circum- ference; 100 m underground 4 caverns for experiments (  )     x xx x RF BD ATLAS CMS LHCb ALICE * 6

7 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Accelerator Collisions of 7,000 GeV on 7,000 GeV protons (for reference: proton mass = 1 GeV) Luminosity cm -2 s -1 (collision rate normalized to cross section) Innovations: ‘2 in 1’ superconducting 8.3 T dipoles (operating temperature 1.9K) focusing s.c. quadrupoles Challenges: collimation (350 MJ stored energy per beam, can melt 800 kg of copper) and furthermore the mere size of the system, e.g. more than 33,000 tonnes of ‘cold mass’, 27 km of cryogenic distribution line, etc.

8 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Accelerator complex (1959) Biggest ring = 27 km circumference

9 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 R&D pre- production industrial production 1232 plus spares

10 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Van streng tot kabel 10 NiTi filamenten, 7  (geproduceerd via extrusie)

11 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 In the tunnel Magnet inter- connect Quality control and Quality assurance

12 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, superconducting bus bars 13 kA for B, QD, QF quadrupole 20 superconducting bus bars 600 A for corrector magnets (minimise dipole field harmonics) 42 sc bus bars 600 A for corrector magnets (chromaticity, tune, etc….) + 12 sc bus bars for 6 kA (special quadrupoles) 42 sc bus bars 600 A for corrector magnets (chromaticity, tune, etc….) + 12 sc bus bars for 6 kA (special quadrupoles) 13 kA Protection diode To be connected: Beam tubes Beam tubes Pipes for helium Pipes for helium Cryostat Cryostat Thermal shields Thermal shields Vacuum vessel Vacuum vessel Superconducting Superconducting cables cables To be connected: Beam tubes Beam tubes Pipes for helium Pipes for helium Cryostat Cryostat Thermal shields Thermal shields Vacuum vessel Vacuum vessel Superconducting Superconducting cables cables Magnet Interconnect

13 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 In the tunnel Jumper connecting cryogenic distribution line and magnets (once every ~100 m) (early photo, tunnel practically empty)

14 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 In the tunnel Beam delivery towards interaction point Current distribution using High Temperature Supercondutor current leads

15 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 LHC Status Installation complete cryogenic distribution line injection lines sc dipoles and quadrupoles; interconnect inner triplets preparing beams for collision RF stations (sc) for acceleration 450 GeV  7000 GeV beam dumps collimation beam instrumentation Hardware commissioning cool-down complete pressure tests powering tests Commissioning with beam circulating beams Colliding beams Restart Spring 2009

16 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, The Large Hadron Collider project saw a wonderful start of operations on September 10, 2008: LINAC, Booster, PS, SPS were accelerating beam to 450 GeV for injection into the LHC The injection lines (TI8, TI2) transported the beam to the LHC The injection kickers sent the beam(s) into the LHC Circulating beams, in both apertures, were established for the first time, with the whole world looking over our shoulders, in a matter of hours The LHC experiments were ready and operational as planned and recorded beam related (timing!) data immediately The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid was up and running Start of Operations

17 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Start of Operations During the days following September 10 some unreliable (‘old’) elements of the electrical infrastructure (transformers) had to be repaired/replaced, but the preparations for collisions continued, one other very important milestone was passed easily, not because it was easy but because of excellent preparations: the RF system captured the beam the road to first beam-beam collisions was now fully open

18 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Final Hardware Commissioning The magnets in Sector (‘Octant’) 34 had not been commissioned yet to full current for operation at 5 TeV (i.e. commissioning to 5.5 TeV) The 7 other octants of the LHC had been commissioned to 5 TeV (and well above) without problems On September 19 (around 11:18) an incident occurred, leading to a large Helium leak in sector 34 – cold Helium escaped into the tunnel, the insulation vacuum was broken (up to vacuum barriers), the beam vacuum was broken (up to sector valves)

19 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Recovery Sector 34 It is now clear that recovery of Sector 34 will take until (‘into’) the planned (and obligatory) Winter shutdown – LHC operations will restart Spring A precise planning is being worked out. The nature of the incident has been understood – it is due to an electrical fault (resistive splice in interconnect) The loss of the insulation vacuum lead to some collateral damage – the logistics of the repair program are being worked out. Very importantly: diagnostic tools are being designed to avoid such problems in the future

20 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Schedule of Experiments The experiments will now go into ‘long shutdown’ mode, to be ready again in early Spring 2009: a more precise date will be agreed with them as soon as this is possible Most experiments have identified a useful and/or necessary program of work of 4 – 5 months: repairs, refurbishments, improvements, additional installation work Everybody involved in the LHC project is as motivated as ever (or more motivated than ever) to overcome this temporary setback! Everybody has reacted professionally and with determination.

21 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, The successful start-up The behavior of the beams was excellent and understood

22 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Cross-section of LHC cryodipole

23 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Cooldown Status

24 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Cooldown Status

25 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 RF cavities

26 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 The RF cavities and transverse dampers Courtesy Edmond Ciapala Fibre-optics signal distribution from RF in SR4 to Experiments, BT & BI equipment and to CCC. 40 MHz bunch clocks, revolution frequencies, 40 MHz 7TeV reference. Injection & dump kicker pulses

27 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Synchronisation Courtesy Roger Bailey

28 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Injection Region

29 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Friday 15:20 Beam on to TI2 TED MSI etc pulsing Cycle LHC Sector 23 OP Beam down TI2 first shot Friday 19:00 TI2 TED out, beam to TDI, kickers off Give Alice 20 minute warning before taking TED out INJ Beam on TDI after correction end TI2 Friday 21:00 Kickers on, time in, position checks Resolve timing issues INJ Interesting collaboration between timing and RF Friday 21:40 TDI out - threading - momentum matching - beam to IR3 Jorg & team Beam to IR3 first shot. Tweak SPS. Courtesy Roger Bailey

30 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 First Trajectory

31 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Kick response compared with theoretical optics

32 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Dispersion 2-3 The trajectory of the off-momentum (1 per mil) beam. On the far left is the end of TI2 where there are no measurements. It goes through LSS2 and Alice with practically zero dispersion. In the arc there is a slight mismatch which is of no consequence and LSS3 it perfectly maps the large dispersion bump from positive to negative that is designed to stop uncaptured particles (which will be lost as the field rises since they are not accelerated) on the collimators. The vertical dispersion (bottom) is zero as it should be.

33 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no

34 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no Beam on turns 1 and 2 34 Courtesy R. Bailey

35 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no Few 100 turns 35 Courtesy R. Bailey

36 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no Dump dilution sweep 36

37 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no No RF, debunching in ~ 25*10 turns, i.e. roughly 25 mS 37 Courtesy E. Ciapala

38 Lyn Evans – EDMS document no Capture with optimum injection phasing, correct reference 38 Courtesy E. Ciapala

39 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 The LHC experiments have seen first ‘man made’ beam

40 ALICE Detector TPC PHOS Muon arm TOF TRDHMPID PMD ITS ACCORDE

41 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Injection tests SPD/SSD, Sunday, 15.6 Dump on TED SPD hits versus bunch intensity (beam through ALICE) FMD hits versus SPD hits (beam through ALICE) FMD event display (1 bunch through ALICE, > hits)

42 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Single turn Double turn, beam 1 back at point 2 ! Luminosity monitor (V0)

43 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Trigger timing (before alignment) versus bunch number single shot for SPD, V0, beam-pickup BPTX, T0 triggers Auto-correlation for SPD trigger, with multi-turn correlations (3564 bunch crossings) Beam pick-up T0 SPD V0

44 First interactions 12 th September ITS tracks on Circulating beam 2 stray particle causing an interaction in the ITS

45 24/10/ rd RRB J. SchukraftTPC Particle Identification Momentum Resolution Krypton Gain Calibration

46 46 LHCb Spectrometer VELO RICH1 TT Magnet OT RICH2 Calo. System Muon System

47 LHCb sees tracks from the LHC injection tests Silicon tracker Muon chambers VELO (Run 30933, Event 14) VELO (Run 30933, Event 14) SPD (provided trigger) TED events

48 Beam1 induced OT tracks originating close to the beam pipe

49 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, ATLAS 45 m 24 m ATLAS superimposed to the 5 floors of building 40 LHCC, 24-Sep-2008, PJ Status of ATLAS 7000 Tons

50 50 Very first beam-splash event seen in ATLAS (as seen online in the ATLAS Control Room) on 10-Sep-2008 at 10:19

51 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, A busy beam-halo event with tracks bent in the Toroids from the start-up day (offline)

52 52 Barrel-tracks TRT in the run August (a cosmic shower) Shower

53 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 The CMS Detector

54 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Calorimeters: Collimators Closed Energy in ECAL (EE-, EB, EE+) ECAL: Splash events provided a source for overall internal synchronization. Crystals were time aligned to within 1ns !

55 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 WLCG Since CCRC08 in May the experiments have continued to run work at very high levels on the grid infrastructure and continued to keep data transfers running at a level consistent with that expected in data taking. WLCG has seen cosmic data and also the first “events” from LHCb during the second injection test, and data sets from all 4 experiments on Wednesday 9/10. The transfer rates all summer have been in excess of 1 GB/s more or less continuously with higher peaks (the data taking rate is 650 MB/s, twice that for safety). This, and the continuous high rate of job submission has been driven by experiment functional testing, and more and more detector-driven stress tests.

56 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, 2008 Conclusions The LHC experiments have followed the remarkable performance of the LHC machine with an equally remarkable performance: the detectors work with real beam!

57 Jaarvergadering NNV Secties K&H, Lunteren, November 7, Conclusions Recovery of Sector 34 has the highest priority Start-up in Spring 2009 is now the target And then: a two phased approach to SLHC


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