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The Impact of Mentoring on Leadership Identity

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Presentation on theme: "The Impact of Mentoring on Leadership Identity"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Impact of Mentoring on Leadership Identity
Annelies Meulepas1, Koen Marichal1; Jesse Segers2 1Antwerp Management School, Belgium 2 University of Antwerp/Antwerp Management School, Belgium The Future Leadership Initiative

2 1. Introduction

3 Aim Only one study that links mentoring with leadership development (Lester, Hannah, Harms, Vogelgesang, & Avolio, 2011) Aim: Open and explorative research format to investigate the impact of mentoring on leadership development

4 Mentoring Defenition = a developmental relationship between a more experienced and a less experienced person (Kram, 1985) Not necessarily direct supervisor/member of the organization Mentor= an influential person, devoted to support and promote the mentee’s career using the own knowledge and experience 2 functions: personal & professional development Wat terminologie uitklaren

5 Mentoring

6 Mentoring Important features Life cycle of 4 phases (1 – 5 years)
Formal vs. Informal mentoring Informal mentoring => better results (Underhill, 2006) Relationship quality & motivation as crucial factors

7 Leadership Leadership is more than a role, leadership as a matter of identity (Day, Harrisson, & Halpin, 2009) Self-image  static or one-dimensional Possible selves (Ibarra,2010) Identity issue, beyond skills and knowledge, identity as ‘’I’m a leader’ => profound effect on the way we think and behave Parallel with talent, people has to see themselves as talented in a particular area/ domain Various selves influence each other and evolve, like also mentioned in the presentation yesterday on liminality => possible selves and temporary selves (try outs, not fully obtained) The degree and the way one sees oneself as a leader determines the leadership behaviour

8 3 leadership identities
“personal dominance” “influence” “relational dialogue” Personal dominance: view the personality of the leader is central, leader is the controlling factor, decides, has the reins As influence: can also dominate, but is more inclusive, open to other viewpoints, can be influenced As dialogue surpasses the previous one: within this idea everyone affects each other, leadership emerges in group, is a contribution to the whole (Drath 2001 in Day et al., 2009)

9 Leadership development
Leader identity development = a social process It is a relational category With 3 aspects (DeRue & Ashford, 2010): Personal internalization Relational recognition Collective empowerment It’s a recognition of a particular identity by other people Pers int: people see themselves at a certain point as a leader, they claim leadership May or may not be recognized relationalley, only through recognition leadership becomes an reallty Finally there has to be a moment of collective endorsement, the more people are seen as a leader, the stronger they will experience themselves as a leader

10 Developing versus learning
“Development of any system = purposeful simultaneous transformation toward higher levels of differentiation and integration.” (Gharajedaghi, 1999) planned reflection organized experience feedback support Underlying dynamics of adult development and therefore identity development is one of differentiation and integration One side you have learning: accumulation of experience, knowledge and skills allows more effcient and effective functioning at a particular level (integration) Differentiation: desintegration of the frame of reference because of disrupting events and experiences (strong impact on own beliefs and ideas => creates anxiety and uncertainty Only after a while bacj integrated in new paradigm => development (changes meaning of everything that people have learned) (Robert Kegan, 2010) (Daniel Day et al., 2011)

11 Leadership & mentoring
Mentoring’s potential to develop leadership identity: By definition, mentoring relationship to develop the mentee, both professionally and personally reflection, experiences, feedback and support as important ways to come to such development

12 Method

13 Research context Formal mentoring program of a Flemish management association (vMA) Open instructions

14 Data collection Semi-structured interviews Interview questions:
Concrete activities, change in leadership of the mentee, other specific effects, probable causes Extra question mentors: impact on own learning experience and leadership vision 18 interviews (2 excluded) To minimize bias: 2 interviewers, anonimity reassurance, setting, handwritten notes, common interview protocol Limitations: cross sectional, small sample

15 Data analysis Based on an inductive, grounded theory development process (Eisenhardt; 1989) Iterative process => data - relevant literature - own emerging concepts Focus on the ‘how’ and ‘why’ Independent analysis by 2 of the authors – 3th author as guard of objectivity Comparing 10 cases through subsequent rounds of coding and analysis

16 Results

17 General findings Overcoming the distance, both hiërarchical as content-wise "... Of course you go there with a healthy dose of tension..." (YM6) "A whole other world opened for me." (YM3) The importance of matching " clicked and that is really important ..." (YM2) Self disclosure and trust "Open atmosphere is very important, it seems evident, but nevertheless it’s crucial." (YM9) "A very good relationship arised. Confidence, complete confidence, so I felt that I could discuss everything with him/her, that I could really trust him/her. "(WM4)

18 General findings Increased self-confidence of the mentees,…
"It has given me confidence. That's in my opinion the strength of the program. "(YM8) …which made change possible e.g. changes in their professional context "I do not think he/she realizes that he/she really had an impact on my choice." (YM4)

19 General findings Mentors and their effects
 "... It was very refreshing, to get to talk with someone openly about “what are the fundamentals? What is it really all about?" (WM6) “ It makes you think about yourself. Questions are asked concerning things you don’t really think consciously about.” (WM5) Different level of reciprocity

20 Mentoring patterns the mentor as coach the mentor as advisor
Coach:structured focused and rather formal working method: certain rythm and preset duration, working questions or assignments, shared personal information intentionally, goal development Advisor: more professional position, listening to questions and answering from own experience and expertise, focused meetings, well prepared and followed up, less personal with variation in degree of openess from very formal to more informal Tour guide: exchanging experiences, open and equal point of view, thorough introduction, informal character considered of key importance (lunch together), dialogue with an open end the mentor as tour guide

21 Leadership identity (Day et al. 2009) Effects mentee Effects mentor
Mentoringdynamic Description Leadership identity (Day et al. 2009) Effects mentee Effects mentor Coach Structured, focused en rather formal approach Work questions or assignments and offering of experiences Influencing Rather developing: identity & awareness To learn & possibly develop Tour guide Open and equal approach Experience, informal contact as key elements Relational dialogue Advisor Advisory and professional approach Answering questions from their own perspective Personal dominance Rather learning: substantive results To learn Wat terminologie uitklaren

22 Other influencing factors
Preliminary motivation Motivation letters mentees => corresponding the outcomes Only one mismatch Complementarity and leadership identities Differences reported as factor of success Advisory mentors: highlighting the similarity as important => learning quickly Maturity of mentors

23 Discussion

24 Developed conceptual framework
Initial setting Process Outcomes + Instrumental learning Advisory + Stronger leadership identity Informal format + + Overcoming Distance Self-confidence + + + + + + + + Relational quality Positive match Trust + Open world + + + ++ + Disclosure + Tour guiding More relational leadership scheme Motivation + Coaching +

25 Limitations and future research
Cross-sectional Built on an existing program Future research Each link in previous framework Possible hypotheses: The orientation to lead of mentors defines their mentoring style Mentors with a relational orientation to leadership are more effective in developing leadership identity Mentors with a tour guiding style develop relations with a higher quality and therefore obtain overall higher outcomes The right balance between distance and initial trust is needed as condition for an effective mentoring relation Mentoring is effective for leadership identity development because of the initial hierarchical distance

26 Practical implications
Mentoring indeed a specific and valuable impact on leadership and identity development General practical implications Informal setting to enhance intrinsic motivation and trust building Certain level of support The importance of the matching process

27 Practical implications
Mentoring indeed a specific and valuable impact on leadership and identity development Leadership development implications Mentors’ leadership identity and mentoring style Mentees preliminary motivation ‘Tour guiding’ style => strongest impact Through exercising mentoring, the mentors reinforce their own leadership identity

28 Questions ?

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