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Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting for Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting for Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting for Information Architecture Usage Areas, Methods and Samples Steffen Schilb

2 Outline Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 1.Introduction 2.Card Sorting: The Standard Method 3.Cluster Analysis 4.Computer-Based Card Sorting 5.Card Sorting Variants 6.Conclusion 7.References 8.Questions and Discussion

3 Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 1 Introduction

4 Introduction: Why do People browse the Internet? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb

5 Introduction: Why do People browse the Internet? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Typical User Behaviour (Wodtke, 2003) Search for specific Information Complete a Task Browsing around Problem Information cannot be found

6 Introduction:Why does this happen? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Hierarchy, Navigation Scheme No intuitive Navigation Scheme, Hierarchy People expect Content somewhere else

7 Introduction:Why does this happen? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Misunderstood Wording Inconsistent Terms English Vs. German Ambiguous Terms

8 Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb How can this be improved?

9 Introduction: How can this be improved? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb With Card Sorting Users group the Contents and develop a Hierarchy themselves Helps to understand how Users group Information Can provide insight into mental Model Serves as helpful Input to specify IA

10 Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Benfits of Card Sorting Simple, Cheap, Quick Established Involves Users Flexible Provides good Results

11 Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Usage Areas Designing a new Site Designing a new Area of a Site Redesigning a Site Early Stages of Prototyping Large Websites

12 Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 2 Card Sorting: The Standard Method

13 Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Preparation

14 Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Preparation Write down the Topics Write each Content on a Card Size of Cards should be manageable Number of Cards should be manageable (30-100) Label is extremely important

15 Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Same Level of Detail Politics Album Charts

16 Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Cover one distinguished Content Tennis Icehockey

17 Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Describe the Content in a unambiguous Way Inspiration Opening Hours

18 Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Before the Exercise starts... Define Test Conditions (Single, Group,...) Select Participants Invite Participants

19 Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Conducting the Exercise

20 Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Procedure Welcome Participants Introduce Card Sorting Method Give Instructions Sorting out Cards Sorting into multiple Categories

21 Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Step 1: Sorting the Cards

22 Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Step 2: Finalizing the Sorting

23 Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Step 3: Labeling the Clusters

24 Card Sorting: Closed Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Variant: Closed Card Sorting Categories are predefined Top-down Approach Redesign/Relaunch of Websites

25 Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb (Manual) Analysis

26 Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Analysis Methods Documention Data-Eyeballing Spreadsheet Analysis (Clusteranalysis)

27 Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Data-Eyeballing Look for dominant Organization Schemes (Patterns) Adjust Scheme to make kinds of Categories consistent Set asside the odd Categories that dont match

28 Card Sorting: Data-Eyeballing Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Result: Simple Taxonomy Sport Fussball 1. Bundesliga 2. Bundesliga... Tennis Weltrangliste ATP-Turniere... Basketball NBA... Politik Aktuelles Aus aller Welt Deutschland... Innenpolitik News... Außenpolitik Europa... Wirtschaft Deutschland News... Weltweit News... Börse News DAX Dow-Jones...

29 Card Sorting: Data-Eyeballing Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Attributes of Data-Eyeballing Efficient Easy and fast But: Highly subjective

30 Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Spreadsheet Analysis

31 Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Spreadsheet Analysis More information can be found at Boxes and Arrows: Analyzing Card Sort Results with a Spreadsheet Template

32 Cluster Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 3 Cluster Analysis

33 Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Cluster Analysis Statistical Analysis Method for identifying Groups Most common Analysis Method Mostly done with Computer Procedure: Step 1: Distance Matrix Step 2: Tree Diagram

34 Cluster Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix

35 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Example Participant 1 Projekte AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studentisches Fachbereiche Insitute Campus Lageplan Anreise Participant 2 Aktivitäten AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studium Fachbereiche Institute Allgemeine Infos Lageplan Anreise Participant 3 Aktivitäten AGs Studium Fachbereiche Aktuelle Projekte Institute Informationen Lageplan Anreise

36 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche InstituteLageplanAnreise AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche Insitute Lageplan Anreise

37 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche InstituteLageplanAnreise AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche Insitute Lageplan Anreise

38 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 + P2 AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche InstituteLageplanAnreise AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche Insitute Lageplan Anreise

39 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Example Participant 1 Projekte AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studentisches Fachbereiche Insitute Campus Lageplan Anreise Participant 2 Aktivitäten AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studium Fachbereiche Institute Allgemeine Infos Lageplan Anreise Participant 3 Aktivitäten AGs Studium Fachbereiche Aktuelle Projekte Institute Informationen Lageplan Anreise

40 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix (P1+P2)+P3 AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche InstituteLageplanAnreise AGs Aktuelle Projekte Fach- bereiche Insitute Lageplan Anreise

41 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb How to calculate K F (A F /B F ) = K t (A t /B t ) T t=1 T K: Relative Coordinate A: Relative X-Coordinate B:Relative Y-Coordinate F:Final Matrix T:Number of Participants t:Participant

42 Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb From Distance Matrix to Tree Diagrams Single Linkage Algorithm Complete Linkage Algorithm Average Linkage Algorithm

43 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix AGsASTA Aktuelle Projekte Alumni AGs ASTA Aktuelle Projekte Alumni

44 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb How it works Pair (Aktuelle Projekte/AGs) is most frequently grouped together (58%) Combine Pair to one Cluster and calculate new Distances d(E; CE1 + CE2) = min{d(E;CE1), d(E;CE2)} d(ASTA; AGs + Aktuelle Projekte) = min{d(ASTA;AGs), d(ASTA; Aktuelle Projekte)} = min{0.69, 0.92}= 0.69

45 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb New Distance Matrix AGs+ Aktuelle Projekte ASTAAlumni AGs+ Aktuelle Projekte ASTA Aktuelle Projekte

46 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Steps 1.AGs+Aktuelle Projekte (AGs+Aktuelle Projekte)+ASTA ((AGs+Aktuelle Projekte)+ASTA)+Alumni 0.81

47 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Final Dendogram AGs Aktuelle Projekte ASTA Alumni

48 Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Attributes min{0.69;0.92}=0.69 Nearest-Neighboor-Method Minimum-Distance Rule Chaining Phenomenon Isolates Outliners (Most important Attribute)

49 Cluster Analysis: Complete Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Attributes max{0.69;0.92}=0.92 Furthest-Neighboor-Method A lot of small Groups are formed Large groups are mostly formed at the End Does not identify Outliners well

50 Cluster Analysis: Average Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Attributes 0,5x(0.69) + 0,5x(0.92) = 0.80 Takes mean Distance No Chaining Phenonemon

51 Computer-Based Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 4 Computer-Based Card Sorting

52 Computer-Based Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Some Tools EZSort CardSort

53 Computer-Based Card Sorting: EZSort Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb EZSort

54 Computer-Based Card Sorting: EZSort Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Features Most common Card Sorting Tool Developed by IBM in 1998 USort for Sorting the Cards (Open Card Sort) EZCalc for Clusteranalysis Windows-only

55 Computer-Based Card Sorting: CardSort Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb CardSort

56 Computer-Based Card Sorting: CardSort Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Features Developed in Allows only Card Sorting (open and closed) Analysis with EZCalc Cross-plattform

57 Computer-Based Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Other Tools CardZort CardSword WebSort

58 Card Sorting Variants Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 5 Card Sorting Variants

59 Card Sorting Variants Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting Variants Card Sorting with Subgroups Labeling the Contents Rating the Contents

60 Card Sorting Variants: Card Sorting with Subgroups Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting with Subgroups

61 Card Sorting Variants: Card Sorting with Subgroups Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Attributes Adding an additional Sorting Step First: Forming Clusters (Subgroups) Second: Forming Major Clusters Third: Labeling the (Major) Clusters

62 Card Sorting Variants: Labeling the Contents Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Labeling the Contents

63 Card Sorting Variants: Labeling the Contents Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Labeling the Contents Cards represent Content Descriptions Users label the Contents On this page, students register online for their courses.

64 Card Sorting Variants: Rating the Contents Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Rating the Contents Gerry McGovern (2002)

65 Card Sorting Variants: Rating the Contents Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Begriff 20 Step 1 Step 2 Begriff 14 Begriff 7 Begriff 4 Begriff 23 Begriff 6 Begriff 24 Begriff 16 Begriff 1 Begriff 2 Begriff 1 Begriff 3 Begriff 5 Begriff 8 Begriff 9 Begriff 10 Begriff 11 Begriff 13 Begriff 15 Begriff 17 Begriff 1 Begriff 18 Begriff 21 Begriff 22 Begriff 25 Begriff 26 Begriff 4 Begriff 6 Begriff 7 Begriff 14 Begriff 16 Begriff 19 Begriff 20 Begriff 23 Begriff 24

66 Conclusion Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 6 Conclusion

67 Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Summary Card Sorting is an easy and cheap Method to get an Insight into the users mental Model Many different Variants Not a silver Bullet Generates Suggestions for Navigation, Hierarchy, Wording

68 Conclusion Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Summary Can be done paper-based or computer-based Computer-based Method is better for Analysis -> Clusteranalysis Manual Method is easier for Users to handle

69 Conclusion Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Keep in Mind Only for large Websites Users Tasks are not integrated May capture Surface Characteristics only

70 References Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 7 References

71 Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Links, Books, Articles IAWiki Card Sorting Boxes and Arrows James Robertson Donna Maurer

72 Card Sorting Variants: Card-Based Classification Evaluation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Thank you!

73 Computer-Based Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb 8 Questions and Discussion

74 Card Sorting Variants: Card-Based Classification Evaluation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./ :: Steffen Schilb Further Questions? Contact me!


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