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1 Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Fridge recycling: Can it be done without endangering.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Fridge recycling: Can it be done without endangering."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Fridge recycling: Can it be done without endangering the environment?

2 2 1.Who or what is RAL? 2.The RAL quality mark for fridge recycling 3.The environmental relevance of waste refrigeration equipment 4.Life cycle assessment study by the independent Öko-Institut: Evaluation of the environmental impact of the various fridge processing options 5.Implications for the fridge recycling sector Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Fridge recycling: Can it be done without endangering the environment?

3 3 The RAL Institute – Independent and objective The RAL Institute is an expert body with the authority to create quality assurance marks. A RAL quality mark verifies that a product or service is manufactured or marketed in accordance with stringent quality assurance specifications. The RAL quality assurance associations are organizations recognized by the RAL Institute that conduct and monitor compliance with their quality assurance specifications for a specific product or service. There are currently over 160 different RAL quality marks covering thousands of products and services. The quality marks are awarded by over 130 RAL quality assurance associations who represent around ten thousand member companies from all areas of the economy both in Germany and abroad. Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

4 4 The RAL Institute – Independent and objective There are more than 160 RAL quality marks … Wallpaper Foodstuffs Road traffic signs Compost Sewer construction work Pure new wool Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

5 5 The RAL Institute – Independent and objective RAL Colours RAL/UBA The Blue Angel Other areas in which RAL is active: Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

6 6 The RAL Institute – Independent and objective The RAL quality mark for fridge recycling was established in 1998 State of the art fridge recycling Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

7 7 Why is every gram of CFC recovered so important? Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Environmental relevance of fridge recycling

8 8 CFCs and the Earths climate (1) CFCs are still the no. 1 ozone killer Ozone layer hole bigger than North America THE hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica has grown to the biggest recorded size – larger than the North American continent – say NASA scientists, who yesterday released dramatic images documenting its changes. The hole is a region where there is severe depletion of the layer of ozone – a form of oxygen – in the upper atmosphere that protects life by blocking ultraviolet rays from the sun. Scientists say made-man gases such as bromine and chlorine cause the hole by damaging the layer. […] Alex Massie in Washington (Article in The SCOTSMAN, 21 October 2006) Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

9 9 CFCs and the Earths climate (1) CFCs are still the no. 1 ozone killer Climate protection will fail without the systematic reduction in CFC levels in the atmosphere Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

10 10 CFCs and the Earths climate (2) Huge influence on the greenhouse effect CFC R12: 10,720 kg CO 2 -equivalents CFC R11: 4,680 kg CO 2 -equivalents 1 fridge = approx kg CO 2 ! Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

11 11 CFCs and the Earths climate (3) Current situation in the EU: In the EU around 18 million waste fridges and freezers and returned to the manufacturing companies or to consortia of manufacturers for treatment every year. 80 % of these waste appliances (i.e million units) containing CFCs 14.4 million fridges = 40.3 million tonnes of CO 2 Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

12 12 CFCs and the Earths climate (3) CFCs still to be recovered from refrigeration equipment in the EU: We estimate that there are still about 200 millionfridges containing CFCs currently in use in the EU We estimate that there are still about 200 million fridges containing CFCs currently in use in the EU 200 million fridges = 560 million tonnes of CO 2 Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

13 13 CFCs and the Earths climate (4) 200 million fridges = 560 million tonnes of CO 2 Traffic in Germany = 160 million tonnes of CO 2 per year !!! Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

14 14 CFCs and the Earths climate (5) The no. 1 ozone killer Massive contributor to the greenhouse effect The numbers demonstrate just how important it is to recover every gram of CFC when recycling waste refrigeration equipment. Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

15 15 Evaluating the different options for processing CFC- containing and hydrocarbon-containing fridges and freezers Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment What is the best way ????

16 16 Evaluating the different options for processing CFC- containing and hydrocarbon-containing fridges and freezers Variant 1 Joint processing Local waste collection centres or manufacturers take-back schemes Variant 2 Parallel processing Variant 3 Only CFC appliances treated Variant 4 HC appliances in auto shredder Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment HCs released into the environment!! Recovery and safe destruction of CFCs + HCs

17 17 Evaluating the different options for processing CFC- containing and hydrocarbon-containing fridges and freezers Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Legal situation The WEEE directive is absolutely clear on this point: Annex 2: Removal of CFC and HC (hydrocarbons) and subsequent disposal or recovery Statement issued by EU Commissioner DimasStatement issued by EU Commissioner Dimas Expert legal opinion of the law firm Prof. VersteylExpert legal opinion of the law firm Prof. Versteyl Most EU member states have adopted the formulation specified in the WEEE directiveMost EU member states have adopted the formulation specified in the WEEE directive Variant 1 is the only means of processing that meets these legal requirements

18 18 Life cycle assessment of the treatment and recycling of refrigeration equipment containing CFCs and hydrocarbons Doris Schüler Günter Dehoust Ina Rüdenauer on behalf of RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment March 2007

19 19 Objective Joint processing of waste appliances containing CFCs and those containing HCs in a single recycling plant to a high environmental standard (variant 1) Parallel processing of CFC-containing appliances to a high environmental standard (variant 2) Step 2 processing of HC-appliances in an auto shredder (variant 3) HC-containing appliances treated entirely in an auto shredder (variant 4) Fraction of HC-appliances: 20% (sensitivity: 50%) Comparison of the environmental impact of the different disposal channels for waste domestic refrigeration appliances containing CFCs and hydrocarbons:

20 20 LKW-Transport 100 km Kühlgeräte- Recycler: Stufe im Mischbetrieb Kühlgeräte Glas in Glasschmelze Öle in thermische Verwertung Polystyrol zum stofflichen Recycling Metalle zum Metallrecycling Kunststoffe zur energetischen Verwertung und zur MVA Isobutan in HTV Cyclopentan in HTV FCKW in HTV PUR als Aufsaugmaterial Schema Mischbetrieb (Variante 1)

21 21 Schema Parallelbetrieb LKW-Transport 100 km Kühlgeräte- Recycler: Stufe im Parallelbetrieb in 2 getrennten Anlagen Fehlsortierung 1% Kühlgeräte Glas in Glasschmelze Öle in thermische Verwertung Polystyrol in stoffl. Verwertung bzw. Zementwerk Metalle zum Metallrecycling Kunststoffe zur energetischen Verwertung und zur MVA Isobutan in Fackel. Freisetzung von Cyclo- pentan und FCKW aus fehlsortierten K. FCKW in HTV und HTS PUR als Aufsaugmaterial bzw. MVA (Variante 2)

22 22 Schema: VOC-Geräte Stufe 2 im Shredder LKW-Transport 100 km Kühlgeräte- Recycler: Stufe im Mischbetrieb Fehlsortierung 1% Kühlgeräte Glas in Glasschmelze Öle in thermische Verwertung Polystyrol zum stofflichen Recycling Metalle zum Metallrecycling Isobutan in HTV FCKW in HTV PUR als Aufsaugmaterial Shredder Stufe 2 für KW-Geräte SLF zur MVA Freisetzung von Cyclopentan und FCKW aus fehlsortierten K. SLF zum Postshredder Outputfraktionen: Abfälle zur Deponierung Kunststoffe zur energetischen Verwertung Metalle zum Metallrecycling Metalle zum Metallrecycling 100 km (Variante 3)

23 23 Schema: VOC-Geräte komplett im Shredder I FCKW-Geräte LKW-Transport 100 km Kühlgeräte- Recycler: Nur FCKW-Geräte Stufe Glas in Glasschmelze Metalle zum Metallrecycling FCKW in HTV PUR als Aufsaugmaterial Öle in thermische Verwertung Polystyrol zum stofflichen Recycling Kunststoffe zur energetischen Verwertung und zur MVA (Variante 4)

24 24 Schema: VOC-Geräte komplett im Shredder II VOC-Kühlgeräte und fehlsortierte FCKW-Geräte Shredder Stufe 1+2 für VOC-Geräte FCKW-Emissionen VOC-Emissionen LKW-Transport 50 km Metalle zum Metallrecycling Öle in thermische Verwertung SLF zur MVA Freisetzung von Cyclopentan und FCKW aus fehlsortierten K. SLF zum Postshredder Outputfraktionen: Abfälle zur Deponierung Kunststoffe zur energetischen Verwertung Metalle zum Metallrecycling (Variante 4)

25 25 Results I: CFC emissions CFC Emissions Joint processing at fridge recycling company Parallel processing at fridge recycling company kg per year R12R11 HC-appliances: Step 2 in auto shredder HC-appliances: Treated entirely in auto shredder

26 26 Results II Negative values indicate favourable environmental impact. The best variant from an environmental point of view is shown against the dark grey background.

27 27 Sensitivity analysis 50% HC-appliances (Values in parentheses refer to a 20% fraction of HC-appliances) 1234 Variant Joint processing Parallel processing HC- appliances: Step 2 in shredder HC- appliances: Steps 1+2 in shredder Greenhouse effect 1000 t CO 2 -eq per year (193)-(169)-(155)-(128) Ozone depletion potential kg R11-eq per year (1.207)(4.116)(6.573)(8.609) Photochemical oxidants kg ethylene-eq per year (15.032)(3.828)(28.221)(38.035) Acidificationt SO 2 -eq / year (967)-(959)-(947)-(948) Eutrophicationt PO 4 -eq / year (62) -(60)-(61) Particulate mattert PM 10 -eq / year (1.035)-(1.027)-(1.013)-(1.015) Cumulative energy expenditure (CEE) PJ-2,64-2,58-2,67-2,69 -(2,64)-(2,63)-(2,60)

28 28 Sensitivity analysis Sorting error rates Results for ozone depletion potential

29 29 Greenhouse effect for sorting error rate of %

30 30 The Öko-Institut concludes that: For all environmental criteria examined in the study, variant 1 is significantly better than the other three methods of processing waste refrigeration appliances. The benefits of variant 1 are robust. Missorting is the most important factor. Even conservative estimates of sorting errors yield significant differences with respect to greenhouse potential, ODP and the formation of photochemical oxidants.

31 31 Implications for fridge recycling practice in EU member states Implications for fridge recycling practice in EU member states 1. Attempts to pre-sort fridges according to whether they contain CFCs or HCs is environmentally irresponsible irrespective of whether this is done at the local waste collection centre or at the recycling companys premises 2. Joint processing (variant 1) must be used to a far greater degree than has been the case in EU member states up until now 3. Regulatory authorities must ensure that systematic and rigorous checks on compliance are conducted 4. Any revision to the WEEE directive must continue to include the stipulation that hydrocarbons are to be recovered and then safely disposed of or reused. Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment

32 32 Essential requirements to ensure environmentally safe recycling of waste refrigeration equipment in the EU Essential requirements to ensure environmentally safe recycling of waste refrigeration equipment in the EU Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment Binding specifications regarding the amounts of CFCs to be recovered (as implemented in Austria)Binding specifications regarding the amounts of CFCs to be recovered (as implemented in Austria) Effective testing and controls by regulatory authoritiesEffective testing and controls by regulatory authorities Systematic monitoring of material flow streamsSystematic monitoring of material flow streams Transparent implementation of the EUs WEEE directiveTransparent implementation of the EUs WEEE directive Revision of licensing procedures to reflect state-of-the- art recycling technologyRevision of licensing procedures to reflect state-of-the- art recycling technology

33 33 For a better climate and a better environment Copyright 2007 © RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment


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