Core Values Precision: ambiguities in writing cause confusion and may prevent a reader from grasping crucial aspects of the methodology and synthesis. Clarity: concepts and methods in the sciences can often be complex; writing that is difficult to follow greatly amplifies any confusion on the part of the reader. Objectivity: any claims that you make need to be based on facts, not intuition or emotion. ถูกต้อง ชัดเจน ไม่มีอคติ
Precise Style Figurative Language –Whenever possible, use quantitative rather than qualitative descriptions.
Precise Style –Whenever possible, use quantitative rather than qualitative descriptions. –Include as much detail as is necessary, but exclude extraneous information. –The reader should be able to easily follow your writing without being distracted by irrelevant facts and descriptions.
Clear Style When you're writing about complex ideas and concepts, it's easy to get sucked into complex writing. Transforming complicated ideas into simple explanations is probably the most difficult task in scientific writing. Almost all scientific writing is space limited!
For example: The osmoregulatory organ, which is located at the base of the third dorsal spine on the outer margin of the terminal papillae and functions by expelling excess sodium ions, activates only under hypertonic conditions. Located on the outer margin of the terminal papillae at the base of the third dorsal spine, the osmoregulatory organ expels excess sodium ions under hypertonic conditions.
Objective Style The objective tone used in conventional scientific writing reflects the philosophy of the scientific method: if results are not repeatable, then they are not valid. Your conclusions should be directly supported by the data that you present. Removes the focus from the researcher and puts it only on the research itself. Passive Voice is highly encouraged.
Content Title Keywords Abstract Introduction Methodology Results Discussion References
Title Fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper. Omit all waste words such as: –“A study of…” –“Investigation of…” –“Observation on…” If the inferences made in the paper are limited to a particular region, then name the region in the title. –If your research pertains only to a certain species.
Keywords These are optional, and are used mainly in professional scientific writing. Used by the indexing and abstracting services –In addition to the keywords provided by the title May increase the ease with which interested readers can locate your article
Abstract Should enable the reader to identify the basic content of a paper quickly and accurately Concisely state the principal objectives and scope of the investigation (where not obvious from title) and results and principal conclusions. Convey the essential details of the paper in as few words as possible (about less than 250 words)
Introduction An important function of the introduction is to establish the significance of the current work: Why was there a need to conduct the study? Clearly state the scope and objectives Do not write any conclusions, methods, or results –Also sometimes called the “background” section
Methodology To provide enough detail for a competent worker to repeat your study and reproduce the results. The scientific method requires that your results be reproducible, and you must provide a basis for repetition of the study by others. If a method has been previously published in a standard journal, only the name of the method and a literature reference need be given.
Results Present your findings (as graphs, tables, and figures) with important trends extracted and described. Because the results comprise the new knowledge that you are contributing to the world, it is important that your findings be clearly and simply stated. However, do not be too concise. Do not expect the reader to extract trends from your data unaided. Many researchers do not have time for this.
Discussion Interpret your results Continually refer to your results, but do not repeat them. Do not extend your conclusions beyond those which are directly supported by your results: no speculations! Address the objectives of the study in the discussion and discuss the significance of the results.
References Whenever you get information from another paper, you must acknowledge that source. In-text citation and works cited is necessary. –The format vary for each journal. In undergraduate level, the format depends on the professor. In profession scientific papers, there are about 60-100 references for each paper. In undergraduate level, there are usually less (depends on the professor).