Presentation on theme: "Procesdenken (Hoe) doen we dat in Nederland ?. Programma •Inleiding •Een korte kennismaking met processen •Discussie in groepjes rond de vragen: •Welke."— Presentation transcript:
Programma •Inleiding •Een korte kennismaking met processen •Discussie in groepjes rond de vragen: •Welke rol speelt procesdenken in de eigen organisatie •Waar zie je het terug •Helpt het (en waarvoor dan) •Past het binnen de organisatie •Waarom: welke factoren kunnen hierbij een remmende / bevorderende invloed hebben •Welke rol vervult het management hierbij •Verschuift dit in de toekomst? •Plenaire terugkoppeling
Een korte kennismaking met processen •je kunt op verschillende manieren naar een organisatie kijken, bij voorbeeld vanuit invalshoeken als •functie •markt •proces •.... •de organisatiestructuur geeft vaak een of meer van deze invalshoeken weer •als ze er niet in de structuur zitten, bestaan ze natuurlijk toch nog steeds
een functionele organisatiestructuur management boekhouding financiën personeel productie verkoop administratie Advantages: - capability development - flexible use of manpower - high utilisation of capacities
een productgerichte organisatiestructuur management healthcar life underwriting claims marketing Advantages: - better involvement with product - product knowledge / fit ends and means - reduced leadtimes / quality control
een geografische organisatiestructuur management Europe The America’s Australasia Operations sales administration Advantages: - customer contacts - adapt to local situation - transport costs
een marktgerichte organisatiestructuur Operations sales administration management retail whole-sale government Advantages: - cater to customer wishes - lower marketing costs - flexibility towards customer
Arguments for selecting a specific structure: •effectiveness (structure follows strategy) •efficiency •controllability •vulnerability •flexibility •staff development •manpower availability
The function of a person Tasks which are part of the job description (what the person does) The functions of an organisation What the organisation does Bij functies onderscheiden we: Common element in all cases: Focus on: - what is done - the nature of work Not on: - how it is done - why it is done
Functies zijn stabiel The basic functions of a bank are: -acquiring money through offering payment of interest -lending this money at a higher interest rate -administrating these activities -advertising the existence of the bank -managing the process This has not changed since the dawn of banking
Example: Function areas of a medium sized manufacturing firm business planning finance product planning materials production planning production sales distribution accounting personnel
Function characteristics: -a function is ongoing and continuous -a function is NOT based on organisational structures -a function categorises ‘WHAT’ is done, not ‘how’ -functions are studied at the organisation level
Model view: process (I) Functional decomposition has been used during the seventies, eighties and early nineties of the last century as the main basis for developing organisational information infrastructures because of •the ease of understanding of the resulting model •the stability of the resulting model •insight in organisational capabilities the model provides •the close link between the model and prevailing organisational management practices •and because of the stability of much of industry at the time Since stability was destroyed by ICT-development we need additional views
Many definitions of ‘process’ exist. •A structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specified output for a particular customer or market (Davenport) •A collection of activities that takes one or more inputs and creates an output that is of value to the customer (Hammer / Champy) Or more informal: •A set of activities that together answer a customer request (Kusters) Remark: a process is not an a procedure which describes ‘HOW’ an is activity is (should be) carried out. Procedures change over time and are designed after the business modelling activities are completed
Heeft het effect? •Harley-Davidson cut delivery time from 360 to 3 days •Citybank cut the time required to process a mortgage application from 30-60 days to 15 minutes •Sheraton ran a typical 300 room hotel with 40 managers and 200 staff, now the numbers are 14 and 40 with increased customer satisfaction •Bell Atlantic reduced from 15 to 3 days the time required to install new communications circuits for business and cut associated labour costs from $88 million to $6 million •...
Of niet? •General Motors and IBM won through the implementation of a total quality management initiatives the Baldridge award for quality at the same time that their economic and competitive performance was plummeting •An insures cuts claims process time by 44% while profits drop •50 - 70 % of reengineering projects fail •a similar % is reported for TQM programs From which we might conclude that: •It is difficult to target the right improvement area •It is difficult to change
Process thinking revolves around these questions •Whenever the label ‘process’ is attached to something (e.g. product development), who exactly is the customer, that is the person or community to which the outcome matters •What must happen for the customer’s request or need to be satisfied? •What value should be created by the process for the customer? •Who does the work? Who must work together? •How is the work to be co-ordinated? •Can ICT be exploited to improve co-ordination? Redesign the activities? Empower the people who do the work? Augment training? Alter incentives?
Typical processes: OperationalManagement product development performance monitoring customer acquisition information management customer requirements identification asset management manufacturing human resource management integrated logistics planning and order management resource allocation post-sales services
Model view: process (IX) research and development marketingmanufacturing New Product Development Competitor analysis Market research New product prototype A typical cross-functional process
process versus functie FunctionProcessindependent of org. struct.stabiel focus op ‘wat’ aggregate by nature of workaggregate by goal continuousbegin and end kernwoord: capability kernwoord: product A functional approach was invented to create effectiveness and control, it was not specifically aimed at efficiency nor at flexibility IT enables a process focus with increase efficiency and flexibility while maintaining effectiveness and control.
An approach that can be taken (Business Process Redesign) develop business vision and process objectives cost / time reduction output quality quality of work life / learning / empowerment identify processes to be redesigned exhaustive (identify all; prioritise) high impact (identify most critical processes) understand and measure current processes identify current problems and set baseline (globally) identify IT levers brainstorm / structured discussion of IT capabilities design and build a prototype of the process
Main characteristics: its process and customer oriented its ICT-based its radical its empowerment and team oriented -the radical (clean slate) approach current processes are riddled with assumptions regarding time, place, order of activities the assumptions are implicit because it used to be unthinkable to deviate from them IT enables the elimination of many of these basic assumptions, The BPR approach stimulates thought processes in that direction
Model view: process (XV) Effects: motivation commitment flexibility responsiveness productivity quality
Waar tref je het procesdenken aan: •in de organisatiestructuur ? •via de aanstelling van procesmanagers ? •in het kwaliteitsysteem ? •in de aansturing van de productie ? •in de informatiesystemen ? •in de wijze waarop de organisatie zicht naar buiten presenteert ? •...