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Geography of Hungary Geology of Hungary I. Main regions of Hungary Kisalföld, Alföld, Alpokalja, Transdanubian Hills, Transdanubian Mountains, Northern.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography of Hungary Geology of Hungary I. Main regions of Hungary Kisalföld, Alföld, Alpokalja, Transdanubian Hills, Transdanubian Mountains, Northern."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Geography of Hungary

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4 Geology of Hungary I. Main regions of Hungary Kisalföld, Alföld, Alpokalja, Transdanubian Hills, Transdanubian Mountains, Northern Mountains II. Relief 67% is plain, the rest are hills and low mountains; lowest altitude 78m, highest altitude 1014 m; km² (110.); extension of East-West 520km, of North-South 320 km III. Use your map to fill in the gaps (the bold peaks and the related mountains are part of the paper)! MountainPeakAltitudeMountainPeakAltitude Kékes-tetőNaszály Istállós-kőNagy-Kopasz CsóványosMagas-bérc Nagy-MilicSzanda Írott-kőNagy-Csákány PilisSzársomlyó KarancsEzüst-hegy Kőris-hegyMeleg-hegy DobogókőHoportyó ZengőÓlom-hegy

5 IV. Geological history of Hungary EraPeriodEpochGeological eventsMain types of rocksExample for occuranceEnergy resources and ores Cenozoic 67 Ma Quaternary 2.6 Ma Holoceneformation of present relief sand, pebbles, loess, fluvial sediment Alföld, Kisalföldpeat Pleistoceneice ageAlföld, Kisalföld, Transd. Hills Tertiary 67 Ma Plioceneformation of the Pacific and Eurasian mountain range basalt, sandstone, sand, clay Tapolcai-basin, depths of Kisalföld, Alföld lignite, oil, natural gas Mioceneandesite, rhyoliteVisegrádi-mt, Zempléni-mt, Börzsöny, Cserhát, Mátra oil, natural gas, brown coal – Nógrád, lead, zinc, copper - Mátra Oligoceneclay, limestoneBudai-mt.oil – Bükkalja Eoceneandesite, limestoneMátra, Transd. Mt. brown coal – Tatabánya, Oroszlány; copper – Recsk Mesozoic 250 Ma CretaceouslimestoneTransd. Mt.brown coal -Ajka, bauxite – Bakony, Vértes Jurassic (Liassic)slaty rocks, limestone, dolomite Kőszegi-mt, Mecsek, Transd. Mt. black coal - Mecsek, manganese – Úrkút Triassicfragmentation of Pangea starts limestone, dolomiteTransd. Mt., Mecsek, Bükkirone ore Rudabánya Paleozoic 540 Ma Permianformation of the Variscan mountain range: Pangea and Panthalassa red sandstoneMecsek, Balaton-uplandsuranium Kővágószőlős Carboniferousgranite, micaVelencei-, Soproni- mt. Devonianlimestone, dolomiteUpponyi-mountain SilurianshaleKisalföld, Balaton-felvidék Ordovicianformation of the Caledonian mountain range Cambrian Proterozoic 2500 Maformation of cratonsmica (900 Ma)Zempléni- mt. (Vilyvitány nugget) Archean 4600 Magenesis of life, formation of hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere

6 Vocabulary - Geology geologyföldtan reliefdomborzat surfacefelszín landscapetáj plainsíkság hillsdombság mountainhegység altitudetengerszint feletti mag. extensionkiterjedés era(földtörténeti) idő epoch(földtörténeti) időszak period(földtörténeti) kor archeanősidő proterozoicelőidő paleozoicóidő mesozoicközépidő cenozoicújidő tertiaryharmadidőszak quaternarynegyedidőszak hydrospherevízburok atmospherelégkör lithospherekőzetburok genesiskeletkezés cratonősföld micacsillámpala shaleagyagpala slatypalás limestonemészkő dolomitedolomit sandstonehomokkő clayagyag sandhomok pebbleskavics fluvial sedimentfolyami üledék loesslösz granitegránit rhyoliteriolit andesiteandezit basaltbazalt oreérc peattőzeg lignitelignit oilkőolaj natural gasföldgáz

7 Minerals of Hungary I. Ores are rocks with high metallic content. The different types of metals (heavy-, non-ferrous-, precious metals) develop mainly in and in the neighbourhood of a blocked mass of magma in the crust. This way accumulation of ores are mainly connected with volcanism. Bauxite is the main exception because it forms through a sedimentary process (denudation – transport – deposition). II. Energy resources are sedimentary rocks accumulated in oceanic or maritime basins, on shores. 1. Oil and natural gas are remnants of planktons transformed in anaerob environment under great pressure over long periods of time. Oil and gas usually migrates form the place of origin to traps sealed up by watertight rocks. Most oil reserves are geologically young formed in the Tertiary epoch. Available stock in the world will be exploited in the coming decades. 2. Coal (peat – lignite – brown coal – hard coal – bituminious coal) forms when large forests bury and timber gets under great pressure without oxygen for a long peroid of time. The best and largest coal deposits developed in the Paleozoic (Carboniferous period) and – at the present rate of extraction – are enough for centuries.

8 V. Natural resources of Hungary. Fill in the gaps using your atlas (the bold minerals and the related extraction sites are part of the paper)! Region of extraction: Mecsek, Dél-Alföld, Nógrádi-medence, Mátra, Bakony, Rudabányai-hg., Mecsek, Mátraalja Settlement of extraction: Algyő, Halimba, Rudabánya, Visonta, Kővágószőlős, Komló, Salgótarján, Recsk Geological period of development: Paleozoic(1), Mesozoic(3), Tertiary(4) Utilization: alum earth production, non-ferrous metallurgy, steel production, production of basic starting materials for chemicals, supplying nuclear power stations, production of thermal power, metallurgy, fuel production MineralRegion of extraction Settlement of extraction Geological period of development Utilization Oil and natural gas Hard coal Brown coal Lignite Bauxite ore Iron ore Copper ore Uranium ore

9 Vocabulary - Minerals natural resourcetermészeti erőforrás energy resourceenergiahordozó raw materialnyersanyag mineralásványkincs extractkitermel open pit miningkülszíni fejtés deep cultivationmélyművelés deposittelep heavy metalnehézfém ironvas uraniumurán nickelnikkel manganesemangán non-ferrous metalszínesfém copperréz leadólom zinccink tinón precious metalnemesfém goldarany silverezüst bauxitebauxit alum earthtimföld crustföldkéreg denudationlepusztulás depositionfelhalmozás sedimentary rocküledékes kőzet maritimetengeri remnantmaradvány anaeroboxigénmentes watertightvízzáró exploitkiaknáz decadeévtized peattőzeg lignitelignit hard coalfeketekőszén bituminious coalantracit timberfaanyag utilizationhasznosítás chemicalsvegyipar nuclear power stationatomerőmű thermal powerhőenergia fuelüzemanyag

10 Climate of Hungary 1.Hungary is situated in the temperate zone and has humid continental climate. 2.Prevailing winds are the westerlies, that bring about large amount of water vapour from the Atlantic ocean in swirling cyclones containing cold fronts and warm fronts. The cyclones are responsible for the quick changes in our weather. 3.In the neighbourhood of cyclones anticyclones form, that bring about sunny, clear weather. In the summer anticyclones are responsible for drought and in wintertime for very cold weather. 4.The most important action centres influencing the climate of the Carpathian basin are: a, the oceanic effect from west which makes summers cool and winters mild and brings about more precipitation b, the continental effect from east which makes summers very hot and winters very cold and both seasons very dry c, the mediterranean effect from south that makes summers very hot and winters more mild and wet

11 I. Main climatic figures •Duration of sunshine varies between hour/year 1.Annual mean temperature is around 10-11°C 2.Warmest month is July, the coldest January 3.The mean annual temperature range is 19°C 4.Patterns in the change of temperature around the year a, the ice saints (Pancras, Servatius, Boniface: ) bring a break in spring warming caused by cold polar air masses b, Medard day (08.06.) brings a drop of temperature and lasting rainfall caused by a strong inflow of oceanic air masses c, indian summer of late septembers and early octobers are brought about by calming cyclone activity 6.Winds are not strong, the usual direction is northwestern 7.The mean annual precipitation is mm/year 8.The most wet regions are the Alpokalja, the Zalai-hills and the peaks of mountainous regions, and the driest areas are the Nagykunság, Jászság and Hortobágy 9.The distribution of precipitation is uneven, the largest proportion falling down at the end of spring and beginning of summer. There is another peak in autumn due to the mediterranean cyclones. Drought is frequent in August, but the most arid month is January.

12 Vocabulary - Climate climateéghajlat weatheridőjárás torrid zonetrópusi öv temperate zonemérsékelt öv frigid zonehideg öv humid continental nedves kontinentális prevailuralkodik, érvényesül trade windspasszát szelek westerliesnyugatias szelek polar windssarki szelek water vapourvízgőz swirlingörvénylő cycloneciklon cold fronthidegfront warm frontmelegfront anticycloneanticiklon draughtaszály, szárazság coolhűvös mildenyhe precipitationcsapadék duration of sunshinenapfénytartam mean annual temperatureévi középhőmérséklet mean annual temperature range évi közepes hőingás patternrendszer the change of temperature around the year a hőmérséklet évi járása ice saintsfagyosszentek lastingtartós rainfallesőzés inflowbeáramlás indian summervénasszonyok nyara calmingcsendesedő northwesternészaknyugati distribution of precipitationcsapadék eloszlása unevenegyenlőtlen frequentgyakori insolationbesugárzás radiationkisugárzás absorptionelnyelés convectionfeláramlás condensationkicsapódás hailjégeső dewharmat frostdér rimezúzmara

13 Hydrography of Hungary I. Underground water 1. Ground water drained by wells was the most important source of drinking water (contagion). It accumulates above the first impermeable layer (e.g. clay). High level of ground water rots plants and has to be drained by a system of drainage ditches, channels. 2. Confined water is the most important drinking water source today. Sand, pebbles filter the water of rivers, lakes and precipitation. This water is stored at great depths over a long period of time between two watertight layer in a water-bearing one. a, bank-filtered water is cleaned by sand and pebbles along the bed of a river (drinking water of Budapest) a, artesian water is brought to the surface by bed pressure through a drilled hole in an artesian basin (Szolnok, Hódmezővásárhely, Szeged, Margit-sziget, Városliget) b, mineral water contains large amount of minerals dissolved from rocks (Kékkút, Szentkirály, Visegrád) c, thermal water is warmer than 20°C and it stems along fracture lines in block-mountains (Zalakaros, Hévíz, Harkány) 3. Karst water springs are based on water percolated through cracks and crevices in limestone. They supply populations of large hungarian towns, like Pécs or Miskolc.

14 II. Rivers 1. The whole country belongs to the catchment area of the Danube that is navigable throughout the year. a, Most important affluents are Rába, Sió, Dráva on the right and Vág, Garam, Ipoly on the left. b, Entering the Carpathian Basin it deposited sediments in the Quaternary forming Szigetköz and Csallóköz. It accelerates and deepens its valley in the Danube Bend. After the mountainous region its flow slows down and builds Szentendrei-, Margit-, Csepel- and Mohácsi-islands. 2. River Tisza meanders through the Alföld due to its small channel gradient. a, Notable affluents are Bodrog, Sajó, Zagyva on the right, and Szamos, Körös, Maros on the left side. b, Long and dense irrigation system belongs to the river. c, Navigation is often hindered by extreme fluctuation of water level. 3. Floods are usual in the spring (snowbreak) and at the beginning of the summer (precipitation maximum).

15 III. Lakes 1. The largest lake of Central-Europe is the Balaton (78km-15km-11km) a, The water accumulated in a trench formed by faulting. b, As a result of small mean depth it can warm up and freeze over easily. c, It’s territory shrinks as rivers (Zala) deposit their load in the basin. d, Spits built by waves caused by föhn wind from the Bakony separate groves on the southern shore. 2. Fertő lake is shallow and salty in the final state of uploading. 3. Velencei lake is shallow and large part of it is covered by reed. 4. The basin of Fehér lake next to Szeged was eroded by the wind. 5. There are many oxbow mort-lakes along the river Danube and Tisza partly due to river regulation (Szelidi-tó). 6. Hévízi lake and Miskolctapolcai lake are spring lakes with warm water. 7. Artificial lakes store water for irrigation, drinking and industrial aims, e.g. Tisza lake.

16 Vocabulary - Hydrography hydrographyvízrajz underground waterfelszín alatti víz ground watertalajvíz soil moisturetalajnedvesség wellkút contagionfertőzés impermeablevízzáró water-tightvízzáró water-bearingvíztartó aquifervíztartó reservoirvíztározó clayagyag ditchárok channelcsatorna confined waterrétegvíz pebblekavics bank-filtered waterparti-szűrésű víz artesian waterartézi víz bed pressurerétegnyomás deep-drillingmélyfúrás mineral waterásványvíz thermal watertermálvíz fracture linetörésvonal tributarymellékfolyó water networkvízhálózat percolatebeszivárog crackrepedés crevicehasadék catchment areavízgyűjtő terület watershedvízválasztó vonal affluentmellékfolyó floodáradás water levelvízállás fluctuatingingadozó meanderkanyarog navigablehajózható snowbreakhóolvadás trenchárok faultingvetődés loadhordalék spitturzás groveberek reednád erosionlepusztulás oxbow mort-lakelefűződött morotva tó river regulationfolyószabályozás

17 Demography of Hungary I. Demography describes the number and composition of the population. The difference between the crude death rate and birth rate gives natural increase and decrease. The population pyramid is the figure describing the population by age groups and sex. II. Decisive factors behind natural decrease in Hungary - declining number of births - high grade of infant mortality - low life expectancy of men (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, suicide, high proportion of smokers and alcoholics) III. The composition of the population is unfavourable as the number of young people declines and the rate of elders (above 50) exceeds 33%.

18 IV. Migration can influence the number of population. In Hungary emigration drains the young and educated groups (engineers, doctors) striving for higher salary and better research possibilities. The level of immigration raised since the late eighties. Immigrants are mainly Hungarians coming from the neighbouring countries. V. The Hungarian minority is the largest in Europe, 2.5 million Hungarians live in the neighbouring countries: Romania 1.4 million, Slovakia , Serbia , Ukraine , Croatia , Slovenia 8000, Austria 7000 In Hungary 99% of the population speaks Hungarian but 3.2% belongs to one of the national minorities: germans , slovaks , romanians 8000 and the gypsies as an ethnic minority – V. Number of population: ( ) Unemployment rate: 10% Structure of occupation: agriculture 4%, industry 27%, service industry 69% Inflation: 6% GDP-change: -1%

19 Vocabulary - Demography demographydemográfia crude death ratehalálozások száma crude birth rateszületések száma natural increasetermészetes szaporodás natural decreasetermészetes fogyás population pyramidkorfa figureábra age groupkorcsoport sexnem decisivedöntő factortényező infant mortalitycsecsemőhalandóság life expentancyvárható élettartam diseasebetegség infectiousfertőző cancerrák cardiovascularszív- és érrendszeri suicideöngyilkosság smokerdohányos alcoholicalkoholista unhealthyegészségtelen minoritykisebbség migrationvándorlás emigrationkivándorlás immigrationbevándorlás engineermérnök unemploymentmunkanélküliség employeemunkavállaló qualificationképzettség structure of occupationfoglalkoztatási szerkezet agriculturemezőgazdaság industryipar service industryszolgáltatások research and developmentkutatás, fejlesztés primaryelsődleges, primer secondarymásodlagos, szekunder tertiaryharmadlagos, tercier quaternarynegyedleges, kvaterner branch of the economygazdasági ágazat sector of the economygazdasági ág Catholickatolikus Calvinisticreformátus Lutheranevangélikus non-believervallástalan

20 Settlements of Hungary I. A settlement is a locality where people live and/or work. The settlements interact whith each other, the national system of them is the network of settlements. Settlements meeting more demands develop catchment area around them. II. Development of settlements is determined by two factors: 1. Natural conditions: fertile soil, favourable climate, plain landscape, natural protection, river valley, source of drinking water, ford, minerals 2. Social conditions: technology for processing raw materials, qualification, strength, lack or surplus of manpower, infrastructure Infrastructure is all the institutions securing the operation of the economy. Hard infrastructure includes all material facilities (network of roads and railways, utility lines, relay stations, buildings and equipments of financial, medical, educational, cultural, scientific and sports institutions, means of public transport, airports, harbours, telecommunication network). Soft infrastructure includes all intellectual conditions (monetary system, education, healthcare, cultural and scientific activities, administration, other services) available for economic development.

21 III. The network of settlements in Hungary contains: a capitalBudapest 24 county citiescentres for the counties + Dunaújváros, Érd, Hódmezővásárhely, Nagykanizsa, Sopron other cities303 municipalities2824 The largest unit of administration is the county (19) estabilished by István I. and the county cities (cities with a population above people) operate independently as well. IV. The most common and oldest type of settlements is the village, but as agriculture becomes mechanized villagers commute to cities to work and abandone the rural way of life. Types of villages by floor plan 1. The irregular street construction of a cluster village was formed by organic expansion. 2. The single street village is usual in the valleys of hilly and mountainous regions 3. The checkerboard floor plan village was constructed according to a design, streets are rectangular.

22 Vocabulary – Settlements localityhely interactkölcsönhatásban lenni national systemországos rendszer network of settlementstelepüléshálózat meet demandszükségletet kielégít catchment areavonzáskörzet natural conditiontermészeti adottság social conditiontársadalmi feltétel fertiletermékeny favourablekedvező landscapetáj fordgázló mineralásványkincs processfeldolgoz raw materialnyersanyag qualificationszakképzettség strengthlétszám lack ofhiány vmiből surplus oftöbblet vmiből manpowermunkaerő infrastructureinfrastruktúra institutionintézmény hard infrstructureanyagi infrastruktúra material facilitiesanyagi létesítmény utility lineközművezeték electrical transmission lineelektromos távvezeték pipelinecsővezeték sewer systemcsatornahálózat relay stationátjátszó állomás public transporttömegközlekedés administrationközigazgatás municipalityközség mechanizegépesít commuteingázik floor planalaprajz cluster villagehalmazfalu single street villageegyutcás falu checkerboard floor plansakktábla alaprajzú falu rectangularderékszög organicszerves expansionterjeszkedés homesteadtanya scattered settlementsszórványtelepülés

23 The structure of Budapest I. Central business district - governmental, jurisdictional and cultural institutions, monuments, banks, luxurious hotels and shops, currency exchanges, office buildings - Parliament, ministries, Prime Minister’s Office, Curia (Supreme Court), Constitutional Court, National Office for the Judiciary, Prosecutor General’s Office, Metropolitan Court, Hungarian State Treasury, Hungarian National Bank, Budapest Stock Exchange, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, National Archives of Hungary, National Széchényi Library, Saint Stephen’s Basilica, Buda Castle, Fisherman’s Bastion, Matthias temple, headquarters of banks and international organizations, Intercontinental, Hilton, Kempinski, Gresham, Astoria - I., V. districts

24 II. Central residential area - multi-storeyed blocks of flats, markets, halls, small specialised shops (second hand book-, antique-, do-it- yourself-, gift-, flowershops, greengrocer’s, jewelry, shoe store), non-stop shops, groceries, workshops (glazier, cobbler, tailor, carpenter), nightclubs, pubs, bars discotheques, post and bank outlets, shopping malls, small public parks, educational and health institutions, libraries, cinemas, theaters, cabarets, hotels, busiest public transportation lines - Lehel square, Hunyadi square, Rákóczi square, Garay square, Király street, Baross street, Szondi street, Kazinczy street, Hungarian National Museum, Comedy, Opera House, MÜPA, Millenáris, A38, Szóda, Szimpla, Moulin Rouge, Süss Fel Nap, Cha-Cha-Cha, Bahnhof, Fészek, Dürer-garden, Kertem, Kiadó, West End, Aréna, Mammut, Allee, Récsey Center, ELTE, SOTE, Károli, Pázmány, Szabó Ervin, Kino, Puskin, Művész, Corvin, Uránia, Vörösmarty, Cirko-Gejzír, Bem, Radnóti, Thália, Bábszínház, Karinthy, Katona, József Attila, Magyar - VI., VII., VIII., IX. districts (Terézváros, Erzsébetváros, Józsefváros, Ferencváros)

25 Vocabulary - The structure of Budapest I central business districtbelső munkahelyöv central residential areabelső lakóöv outer business districtkülső munkahelyöv outer residential areakülső lakóöv monumentműemlék currency exchangepénzváltó hely office buildingirodaház Supreme CourtLegfelsőbb Bíróság CuriaKúria Constitutional CourtAlkotmánybíróság National Office for the Judiciary Országos Bírósági Hivatal Prosecutor General’s Office Legfőbb Ügyészség Metropolitan CourtFővárosi Törvényszék Hungarian State TreasuryMagyar Államkincstár Budapest Stock ExchangeBudapesti Értéktőzsde Hungarian Academy of Sciences Magyar Tudományos Akadémia National Archives of Hungary Magyar Országos Levéltár National Széchényi Library Országos Széchényi Könyvtár cinemamozi theaterszínház librarykönyvtár Buda CastleBudai Vár Fisherman’s BastionHalászbástya headquarterszékhely international organizationnemzetközi szervezet block of flatsbérház multi-storeyedtöbbemeletes hallvásárcsarnok second hand book shopantikvárium antique shoprégiség bolt do-it-yourself shop (DIY)barkácsbolt greengrocer’szöldséges jewelryékszerbolt shoe storecipőbolt workshopműhely glazierüveges cobblersuszter tailorszabó carpenterasztalos post outletpostahivatal bank outletbankfiók cabaretkabaré public transporttömegközlekedés

26 III. Outer business district - industrial firms, office buildings, warehouses, railway and bus stations, vehicle depots, specialised shopping centres, exhibition halls, public parks, sports fields, large health institutions, cemeteries, prisons, barracks - Continental, RG, Dreher, Chinoin, GE-Tungsram, Csepel Works, Public Slaughterhouse, Police Palace, Duna Tower, Infopark, Graphisoft Park, Angyalföld, KÖKI, Zugló, Rákosrendező, Stadionok, Népliget, Mexikói street, Angyalföld, Praktiker, OBI, Baumax, Budapest Expo, Városliget, Népliget, Városmajor, FTC, BVSC, Honvéd, Kispest, Vasas, Kincsem Park, Szent István -, Szent László -, Szent Margit -, Szent János -, Heim Pál kórházak, Fiumei úti sírkert, Újköztemető, Farkasréti cemetery, Kozma street, MAglódi street, Petőfi Sándor barrack, Zrínyi Miklós barrack, Dózsa György street - X., XIII., XIV., XIX.,districts

27 IV. Outer residential area - modern housing estates, garden city, airports, industrial parks, logistic centres, large markets - Békásmegyer, Káposztásmegyer, Újpalota, Rákosplalota, Kispest, Havanna úti housing, Pestszentimre, Pestszentlőrinc, Mátyásföld, Csepel, Liszt Ferenc airport, Tököl airport, Budaörsi airport, BILK, M3 logistic centre, Waberer’s, wholesale vegetable and flower market, car market - IV., XV., XVI., XVII. districts V. Satellite settlements - detached houses - commuting population - Pomáz, Pilisvörösvár, Érd, Dunakeszi, Pécel, Vecsés, Gyál

28 Vocabulary – The structure of Budapest II office buildingirodaház warehouseraktár vehicle depotremiz exhibition hallkiállítási csarnok brewerysörgyár paper millpapírgyár pharmaceuticalsgyógyszergyártás engineeringgépgyártás chemicalsvegyipar metallurgyvaskohászat non-ferrous metallurgyszínesfém-kohászat automotive industryautógyártás armament industryfegyvergyártás tyre manufactoringgumiabroncs gyártás public parkközpark playing-fieldsportpálya soccer fieldfocipálya tennis courtteniszpálya swimming pooluszoda athletic fieldatlétikai pálya hippodromlóversenypálya hospitalkórház internal medicinebelgyógyászat surgerysebészet throat specialistfül-orr-gégészet obstetricsszülészet gynecologynőgyógyászat emergency roomintenzív bedlamtébolyda cemeterytemető prisonbörtön barrackkaszárnya housing estatelakótelep garden citykertváros airportrepülőtér industrial parkipari park logistic centrelogisztikai központ satellite settlementsagglomeráció detached housecsaládi ház semi-detached houseikerház commuteingázik catchment areavonzáskörzet

29 Transport of Hungary I. Transport with passenger transport and freight links dwellings and working places, settlements, our country and the world. Transport delivers raw materials for processing or finished goods for consumption. II. Hard infrastructure includes all material facilities (network of roads and railways, utility lines, relay stations, buildings and equipments of financial, medical, educational, cultural, scientific and sports institutions, means of public transport, airports, harbours, telecommunication network). III. The strucutre and quality of infrastructure reflects and influences the level of economic development of a country. IV. Regarding transport the location of Hungary is favourable as it lies in a less indented basin-like area where roads connecting Western and Eastern Europe and Southern and Northern Europe meet.

30 IV. The network of roads 1. The advantage of transport by road is being quick and door-to-door, it is most economic by rapidly deteriorating or by small and valuable goods. It is expensive and endangers the environment. 2. The structure is strongly centralized and radially organized. The links connecting the highways in the countryside are not finished yet. 3. The main roads of the country are numbered starting with the most important one connecting the capitol with Western Europe from 1 to 8 and measured from Buda Castle 4. The number of the bridges over the Danube has risen recently (19 bridges: Vámosszabadi, Komárom – Erzsébet híd, Esztergom – Mária Valéria híd, Budapest – Megyeri híd, Újpesti vasúti híd, Árpád-híd, Margit-híd, Széchenyi lánchíd, Erzsébet híd, Szabadság híd, Petőfi híd, Rákóczi híd, Összekötő vasúti híd, Deák Ferenc híd, Dunaújváros – Pentele híd, Dunaföldvár – Beszédes József híd, Szekszárd – Szent László híd, Baja – Türr István híd). 5. The national network of roads is connected with international transport lines through frontier stations (Hegyeshalom-1, Rajka, Komárom, Esztergom, Parassapuszta-2, Balassagyarmat, Salgótarján, Bánréve, Tornyosnémeti-3, Záhony-4, Csengersima, Ártánd, Nagylak, Röszke-5, Tompa, Barcs-6, Letenye-7, Rédics, Rábafüzes-8, Sopron).

31 V. The network of railways 1. Transport of people and bulk goods is most economic by railway, it is cheap and environmentally friendly but is tightly connected with the railway line. 2. The structure is strongly centralized and radially organized. The links connecting the radial main lines are abroad as a result of the peace treaty of Trianon. 3. The technical standard of the railway network, the wagons and locomotives is out-of-date VI. Air transport 1. Air transport bridges large distances, it is important in transporting passengers and small, valuable goods. 2. International airports of Hungary are Liszt Ferenc airport receiving freight, small airplanes and passenger traffic, Sármellék and Debrecen. VII. Water transport 1. It’s clean and energy saving but very slow. 2. Navigable rivers are: Danube, Tisza, Sió, Dráva, Maros, Körös, Bodrog, Keleti-főcsatorna, Balaton, Velencei-tó 2. Water regime in Hungary is fluctuating, water depth at many sections is unsatisfactory for larger vessels and the number and standard of international harbours is low (Győr-Gönyű, Komárom, Budapest, Dunaújváros, Baja, Mohács).

32 Vocabulary - Transport passanger transportszemélyszállítás dwellinglakóhely raw materialnyersanyag processfeldolgoz finished goodkésztermék consumptionfogyasztás hard infrastructureanyagi infrastruktúra material facilityanyagi létesítmény utility lineközművezeték relay stationátjátszó állomás public transporttömegközlekedés telecommunication network távközlési hálózat reflecttükröz, kifejez influencebefolyásol indentedtagolt (domborzatilag) door-to-doorháztól-házig narrow gauge linekeskeny nyomtávú vonal freightteheráru, árut szállít, fuvaroz flightrepülőjárat canalcsatorna cargorakomány deteriorateromlik perishableromlandó valuableértékes endangerveszélyeztet centralizedközpontosított radiallysugarasan countrysidevidék frontier stationhatárállomás environmentally friendlykörnyezetbarát energy savingenergiatakarékos air pollutantslégszennyező anyagok wagonvasúti kocsi locomotivemozdony water regimevízjárás fluctuateingadozik inland navigationfolyami hajózás marine navigationtengeri hajózás navigable riverhajózható folyó bulk carrieruszály freighterteherhajó icebreakerjégtörő truck, lorryteherautó goods trafficárufuvarozás

33 VIII. Exercise. Put the settlements on the railwayline and on motorway M5 in the right sequence! Budapest, Paks, Érd, Dunaújváros, Sárbogárd, Dombóvár, Szekszárd, Komló, Szentlőrinc, Pécs Cegléd, Szolnok, Lajosmizse, Dunaújváros, Kecskemét, Hódmezővásárhely, Szentes, Kiskunfélegyháza, Szeged, Röszke


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