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Ray R. Larson, School of Information, UC Berkeley Daniel Pitti, University of Virginia, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities Yiming Liu,

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Presentation on theme: "Ray R. Larson, School of Information, UC Berkeley Daniel Pitti, University of Virginia, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities Yiming Liu,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ray R. Larson, School of Information, UC Berkeley Daniel Pitti, University of Virginia, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities Yiming Liu, School of Information, UC Berkeley Brian Tingle, California Digital Library Adrian Turner, California Digital Library Rachel Hu, California Digital Library PNC 2013 – Kyoto, Japan Towards a Social Network of History

2 http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu

3 Archival Name Authority System

4 Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903- 1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904- 1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), 1885-1945 Sontag, Susan, 1933-2004 Washington, George, 1732-1799 Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 Wright, Lloyd, 1890-1978 Archival Name Authority System

5 Anthony, Susan B Berkeley Free Church Bernstein, Leonard, 1918- Block, Herbert, 1909-2001 Bush, Vannevar, 1890-1974 Frankfurter, Felix, 1882-1965 Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983 Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903-1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903- 1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904- 1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), 1885-1945 Sontag, Susan, 1933-2004 Washington, George, 1732-1799 Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 Wright, Lloyd, 1890-1978 Archival Name Authority System

6 Engelland, Jurgen (George). Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, S Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissenivert Andreas. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903- 1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904- 1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), 1885-1945 Sontag, Susan, 1933-2004 Washington, George, 1732-1799 Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer.. Wright, Lloyd, 1890-1978 Archival Name Authority System

7 Anthony, Susan B Berkeley Free Church Bernstein, Leonard, 1918- Block, Herbert, 1909-2001 Bush, Vannevar, 1890-1974 Frankfurter, Felix, 1882-1965 Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983 Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903-1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804 Luce, Clare Boothe, 1903- 1987 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904- 1967 Patton family Patton, George S. (George Smith), 1885-1945 Sontag, Susan, 1933-2004 Washington, George, 1732-1799 Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892 Wright, Lloyd, 1890-1978 Engelland, Jurgen (George). Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Engelland, Jurgen (George). Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Engelland, Jurgen (George). Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Enwall, Ogie (Aage). Erickson, Selma Inez. Fahl, Hans Johan Fredrik. Fet, Peter Laurits. Flones, Edward. Fredrickson, Hans. Fredrickson, Sven Fredrick. Garberg, Peder. Gillam, Chandler B., 1833-1899. Halseth, Otto Hjalmer. Handeland, Martha Tweiten. Hansen, Anne Schmidt. Hansen, Sylvia (Solveig). Haug, Olga Karoline Nilsen. Hemmestad, Olga Kristine Brodahl. Henry, Oscar M., 1851-1916. Holmes, Anna Gudrun Hauge. Holmes, Elias Kristofferson Velholmen. Hoset, Ole. Howard, Barnett Allen, b. 1827. Hytmo, Guri Olsdatter. Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson). Johnson, Phiea Petersen Stahl. Johnson, Thelma Irene Underdal. Jorgenson, Jorgen Aadneram. Kjersem, Ole Johnson. Knudsen, Johanne. Kofoed, Thorvald Andreas. Larsen, Elias. Lillelien, Thor. Loe, Otto Calvin. Molund, Erik Wilhelm. Nakkerud, Inga Amanda Treland. Nakkerud, Trygve Bloch. Nelson, Amanda. Nerland, Einar Magnus. Nielsen, Einer. Nilsen, Martha Dagsvik. Nissen, Ole Andreas Nissen. Norberg, Jonas Walfred. Norwick, Goodman. Nygaard, Lars Thomas. Odmark, Elsie Karlson. Ohrt, Sigfrid Eidsness. Oliver, Kole Skaflestad. Olson, Alvin E. Opsal, Cato Torvald. Petersen, Greta Jensen. Rasmussen, Martin. Rinne, Esther Wiirre. Rodney family Sandback, George Brun. Saure, Sivert Andreas. Archival Name Authority System

8 Archival Name Authority System Archival Name Authority System

9 Archival Name Authority System Archival Name Authority System

10 Archival Name Authority System

11 Background • Research and demonstration project • Multi-year funding • National Endowment for the Humanities (2010-2012) • Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (2012- 2014) • Planning Project for Cooperative Service (2014-15 - Pending)

12 Objectives 1.Develop tools for extracting EAC-CPF records, drawing on existing data (EAD finding aids, MARC records) 2.Match, merge, and enhance; build a large test corpus of EAC-CPF records 3.Create a prototype biographical resource and access system, using those records

13 Objectives 1.Develop tools for extracting EAC-CPF records, drawing on existing data (EAD finding aids, MARC records) 2.Match, merge, and enhance; build a large test corpus of EAC-CPF records 3.Create a prototype biographical resource and access system, using those records

14 Objectives 1.Develop tools for extracting EAC-CPF records, drawing on existing data (EAD finding aids, MARC records) 2.Match, merge, and enhance; build a large test corpus of EAC-CPF records 3.Create a prototype biographical resource and access system, using those records

15 Project Team • University of Virginia, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities – Daniel Pitti (PI) and Worthy Martin • UC Berkeley School of Information – Ray Larson and Yiming Liu • California Digital Library – Rachael Hu, Brian Tingle, and Adrian Turner

16 Project Team • Terry Catapano (Columbia University) • Sara Sprenkle (Washington and Lee University) • Sarah Wells (University of Virginia) • Kathy Wisser (Simmons Graduate School of Library and Information Science) • Tom Lynch (University of Illinois School of Library and Information Science)

17

18 EAC-CPF • XML-based data structure standard for encoding archival authority records • Authorized name headings for the entity • Biographical/historical context for the entity • Links to resources created by the entity • Links to resources about the entity

19

20 Example EAD - Creator http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mss/eadmss.ms003073 Clement F. Haynsworth Papers … MSS79781 Haynsworth, Clement F. (Clement Furman), 1912-1989 …

21 Example EAD - bioghist … Biographical Note Date Event 1912, Oct. 30 Born, Greenville, S.C. 1933 A.B., Furman University, Greenville, S.C. 1936 LL.B., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. …

22 Title

23

24

25 John Brennan George Jones

26 Thomas SmithFrederick JonesMartha Jones

27 Example EAD - controlaccess … People Barzun, Jacques, 1907- --Correspondence. Brennan, William J. (William Joseph), 1906-1997-- Correspondence. Burger, Warren E., 1907-1995--Correspondence. Clark, Tom C. (Tom Campbell), 1899-1977-- Correspondence. …

28 Example EAD - scopecontent … The most significant and frequent of Haynsworth's correspondents are Jacques Barzun, William J. Brennan, Warren E. Burger, Tom C. Clark, John Paul Frank, Ernest F. Hollings, Edward Moore Kennedy, J. Woodrow Lewis, Daniel John Meador, Arthur Raphael Miller, Richard M. Nixon, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., Strom Thurmond, Johnnie McKeiver Walters, Bernard J. Ward, and Charles Alan Wright. …

29 Example EAD – unittitle No. 7383 Long Mfg. Co. v. Holliday … No. 7416 Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line R.R. v. Brotherhood of R.R. Trainmen, Lodge No. 514 … 201 Wright, Charles Alan, 1970-1989 (10 folders)

30 Data Sources • EAD finding aids [~150,000] – 13 regional and statewide consortia – 35 repositories in US, UK, and France; multiple US federal agencies • MARC21 records [~4.5 million] – OCLC WorldCat • Authority records – OCLC Research: Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) [~16 million] – Getty Vocabulary Program: Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) [~120,000] – Additional name records from Archives nationales, British Library, NARA, New York State Archives, and Smithsonian Institution Archives

31 • Points Consortia • Archives Florida • ArchivesHub (UK) • Arizona Archives Online • EAD FACTORY (OhioLink) • Five Colleges • Maine Archival Collections Online (MACON) • Northwest Digital Archives (NWDA) • Online Archive of California • Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries (PACSCL) • Rhode Island Archival & Manuscript Collections Online (RIAMCO) • Rocky Mountain Online Archive (RMOA) • Texas Archival Resources Online (TARO) • Virginia Heritage Individual institutions • American Philosophical Society • Archives nationales (France) • Archives of American Art • Bibliothèque nationale de France • BnF Archives et manuscripts • French Union Catalog • Brigham Young University • Church of Latter Day Saints Archives • Columbia University • Cornell University • Duke University • Harvard University • Indiana University • Library of Congress (publicly available without restriction) • Minnesota Historical Society • Massachusetts Institute of Technology • National Library of Medicine • New York Public Library • New York University • North Carolina State • Northwestern University • Princeton University • Rutgers University • Smithsonian Institution Archives • Syracuse University • University of Alabama • University of Chicago • University of Connecticut • University of Delaware • University of Florida • University of Illinois • University of Kansas • University of Maryland • University of Michigan Bentley & Special Collections • University of Minnesota • University of Nebraska • University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill • University of Utah • Utah State Archives • Utah State University • Yale University

32 Data Sources • EAD finding aids [~150,000] – 13 regional and statewide consortia – 35 repositories in US, UK, and France; multiple US federal agencies • MARC21 records [~4.5 million] – OCLC WorldCat • Authority records – OCLC Research: Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) [~16 million] – Getty Vocabulary Program: Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) [~120,000] – Additional name records from Archives nationales, British Library, NARA, New York State Archives, and Smithsonian Institution Archives

33 Data Sources • EAD finding aids [~150,000] – 13 regional and statewide consortia – 35 repositories in US, UK, and France; multiple US federal agencies • MARC21 records [~4.5 million] – OCLC WorldCat • Authority records – OCLC Research: Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) [~16 million] – Getty Vocabulary Program: Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) [~120,000] – Additional EAC-CPF (or other) name records from Archives nationales de France, British Library, NARA, New York State Archives, and Smithsonian Institution Archives

34 Methods and Processing • Extract EAC-CPF records from existing EAD-encoded archival descriptions – Extracting both creators and referenced CPF names • Match EAC-CPF records against one another and against existing authority records (ULAN, VIAF, LCNAF) – Enhance EAC-CPF by normalizing entries, adding alternative entries, titles (VIAF), and historical data (ULAN) • Create a prototype historical resource and access system – Historical data and social-professional networks – Links to archive, library, and museum resources (by and about)

35 The Problem • Proliferation of the forms of names – Different names for the same person – Different people with the same names • Examples – from Books in Print (semi-controlled but not consistent) – ERIC author index (not controlled)

36 Goethe …etc…

37 John Muir

38 Library and Archive Authority Control • Library (or bibliographic) authority control is almost exclusively about the control of names • Archival authority control involves biographical- historical description of the CPF entity – Descriptions based on controlled vocabularies, for example, occupations, place of birth and death – But also biographical-historical description • Prose • Chronological list • Archival authority control provides context for understanding records, the context of their creation, the provenance

39 Matching and Merging in SNAC 2 • Developing an updateable database of merged EAC data (dumping Mongo for PostgreSQL) – Will permit incremental addition of new data and support editing and “forced” merges • All original records and merged records will be in the database • Permanent identifiers will be assigned to merged (and unmerged) EAC output records – Track these in the database

40 Postgres Connect exactly matching records Connect records using name authority information Merge Cheshire Search Merging EAC-CPF Records LCNAF RepositoryULAN Repository EAC Record Input Merged EAC Records Output

41 Merge System Step 1: Load Original Records CREATE TABLE original_records ( id bigint NOT NULL, name character varying(255) DEFAULT ''::character varying NOT NULL, source_id character varying(255), collection_id character varying(64), path character varying(255), r_type character varying(64) NOT NULL, from_date date, from_date_type character varying(64), to_date date, to_date_type character varying(64), processed boolean DEFAULT false NOT NULL, last_processed timestamp without time zone, record_data text, created_at timestamp without time zone NOT NULL, updated_at timestamp without time zone NOT NULL, record_group_id bigint ); • Parse source EAC – Key attributes extracted for merge use – Original XML stored • Timestamp for last merge run on record – Resumption of aborted merge runs or reruns

42 Postgres Connect exactly matching records Connect records using name authority information Merge Cheshire Search Merging EAC-CPF Records LCNAF RepositoryULAN Repository EAC Record Input Merged EAC Records Output

43 But… • Exact merging assumes that archives are following LC cataloging practice in their EAD records – There are some problems with this assumption

44 Some failures for merging… • Different abbreviations: – A. & G. Carisch & C. – A. & G. Carisch & Co. • And spacing issues: – A. C. Peters & Bro. – A. C. Peters & Brother. – A. C. Peters. (??) – A. C.Peters & Bro. • Completeness and alternate rules – Tabb, John B. (John Banister), 1845-1909. – Tabb, John Banister, 1845-1909. • Also differing transliterations for non-Latin scripts

45 More… • Variant romanizations (and spacing): – M. P. Belaieff. – M. P. Belaïeff. – M. P. Bieliaev. – M.P. Belaïeff. • Initials vs. names: – Zabolotskii, N.A. – Zabolotskii, Nikolai Alekseevich, 1903-1958. – Zabolotskii.

46 Postgres Connect exactly matching records Connect records using name authority information Merge Cheshire Search Merging EAC-CPF Records LCNAF RepositoryULAN Repository EAC Record Input Merged EAC Records Output

47 Search Authority Files • For each name, formulate a search of the VIAF database using the Cheshire system (SGML/XML retrieval system with probabilistic and Boolean matching) – Search both the “ authoritative ” and “ non- authoritative ” forms – Consider any name matching a non-authoritative form to be a candidate match for the authoritative form – Flag EAC records that match the same authority record as potential matches

48 Data Sources • EAD finding aids [~150,000] – 13 regional and statewide consortia – 35 repositories in US, UK, and France; multiple US federal agencies • MARC21 records [~4.5 million] – OCLC WorldCat • Authority records – OCLC Research: Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) [~16 million] – Getty Vocabulary Program: Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) [~120,000] – Additional name records from Archives nationales, British Library, NARA, New York State Archives, and Smithsonian Institution Archives

49 Shingle Language Model for names Name : Einstein Albert Shingle sequence : ein, ins, nst, ste, tei, ein …, ert Probability that the sequence (ins, nst, ste) follows ein is very high for the name einstein Krishna Janakiraman and Sean Marimpietri - Biograph NGRAM or Shingle Matching

50 Name 1 : Einstein Albert Name 2 : Ainshtain Albert Name 3 : Albert Einstein ein ins nst ste ein In ert rtetei ein Ain ins nsh sht hta tai ain alb ert al rte tei ein ins nst ste ein In ert rte tei ein lbe Shingle Language Model for names Krishna Janakiraman and Sean Marimpietri - Biograph

51 Merge System Step 2: Record Matches • Execute merge algorithm and create record groups – pointers from original records to record groups – Can be invalidated • Matched authority record stored for reference CREATE TABLE record_groups ( id bigint NOT NULL, name character varying(255) DEFAULT ''::character varying NOT NULL, g_type character varying(64) NOT NULL, viaf_record text, ulan_record text, is_valid boolean, invalidated_by bigint, created_at timestamp without time zone NOT NULL, updated_at timestamp without time zone NOT NULL ); Original Records Record Groups belongs to Has many

52 Postgres Connect exactly matching records Connect records using name authority information Merge Cheshire Search Merging EAC-CPF Records LCNAF RepositoryULAN Repository EAC Record Input Merged EAC Records Output

53 Merge Flagged Records • For all of the exact matches and authority matches – Use the Authoritative form of the name – Combine data from each match into a single EAC-CPF record – Retain all source record IDs and information • Finally, output the merged EAC-CPF records – Actually – store how to build the merged record in the database as well • Records can be regenerated as needed from the merge data – Assign permanent identifier for the merged record

54 Merge System Step 3: Create Output • Using valid record groups: – generate merged EAC – assign permanent ARK ID – write to new EAC file • Merged XML stored in db, referenced by record group – Do not need to regenerate XML – Keep track of assigned permanent IDs

55 Merging Conclusions • There is not a single merging method, but a staged set of approaches that will allow us to go from the simplest exact matches, to (we hope) reliably identifying various variant forms of a name, etc. when corroborated by contextual (date, etc.) information (including “active” dates

56 Prototype Access System • text http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu

57 SNAC Social Networks and Archival Context

58 SNAC Social Networks and Archival Context

59 NAAC National Archival Authorities Cooperative Not the final name

60 NAAC National Archival Authorities Cooperative http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu/ NAAC_index.html

61 Activities 1.Cultivate EAC-CPF expertise across the archival community, through 140 SAA- hosted workshops 2.Develop a blueprint for a sustainable, national archival authority cooperative

62 Activities 1.Cultivate EAC-CPF expertise across the archival community, through 140 SAA- hosted workshops 2.Develop a blueprint for a sustainable, national archival authority cooperative

63 Activities 1.Cultivate EAC-CPF expertise across the archival community, through 140 SAA-hosted workshops 2.Develop a blueprint for a sustainable, national archival authority cooperative Planning is being extended with proposal to the Mellon Foundation. Stay tuned for Spring 2014!

64 Prototype Access System • text http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu

65 Brian Tingle and Adrian Turner RBMS Pre-Conference 2012 San Diego, CA


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