5 Tiga cara individu dapat pelajari melalui asosiasi Classical conditioning / PavlovianOperant conditioning / Skinnerian / reward & punishment principleSocial learning / Bandurian / associationism plus expectations
6 Law of Imitation - Tarde People imitate one another. Crime begins as a fashion and later becomes a customThe inferior usually imitates the superiorThe newer fashion displace the older ones
7 Differential Association Theory: Sutherland Criminal behavior is learnedCriminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communicationThe principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groupsWhen criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes: (1) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple, (2) the specific direction of the motives, drives, rationalization and attitudesThe specific directions of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. In some societies an individual is surrounded by persons who invariably define the legal codes as rules to be observed, while in others he is surrounded by persons whose definitions are favorable to the violation of the legal codesA person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. This is the principle of differential associationDifferential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. This means that associations with criminal behavior and also associations with anti criminal behavior vary in those respectsThe process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti criminal patterns involves all of the mechanism that are involved in any other learningWhile criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, since non criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. Thieves generally steal in order to secure money, but likewise honest laborers work in order to secure money. The attempts by many scholars to explain criminal behavior by general drives and values, such as the happiness principle, striving for social status, the money motive, of frustration, have been, and must continue to be, futile, since they explain lawful behavior as completely as they explain criminal behavior. They are similar to respiration, which is necessary for any behavior, but which does not differentiate criminal from non criminal behavior
8 Cultural & Subcultural Theory – Walter B. Miller Role of ideas in causing criminal behaviors among lower class. The lower class has a separate, identifiable culture distinct from the culture of the middle class. Lower class’ focal concerns are: ‘trouble’, ‘toughness’, ‘smartness’, ‘excitement’, ‘fate’, ‘autonomy’ – ‘generating milieu’ interacts with several social conditions typically found in poor areas.
9 Criminal Theory – Wolfgang & Ferracuti Constant underlying conflicts of values as well as normative conflicts between the dominant culture and subculture of violence… People who do not follow the norms are criticized, ridiculed by other people or becoming a victim of the violence. Even if nether person approves of the violence, all people are expected to respond violently
10 Differential Reinforcement – Burgess & Akers Criminal behavior is learned both in nonsocial situations that are reinforcing or discriminative and through that social interaction in which the behavior of other persons is reinforcing or discriminative for criminal behavior. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs in those groups which comprise the individual’s major source of reinforcement
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