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TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Hardware and Software.

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Presentation on theme: "TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Hardware and Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Hardware and Software

2 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Hardware and Software: A complete design •Hardware and software support each other •Sometimes it is necessary to shift functions from software to hardware or the other way around •Cost, speed,overall system complexity, development time and skills, etc. all affect design choices

3 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Limitations of the software approach •processors are more capable •but: –power consumption –cost –programming –the solution must fit the application

4 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Tradeoffs depend on appliction •SOFTWARE –Cons:constraints: •power budget •cost •security? –Pros: •can be modified •easier to develop •HARDWARE –Pros: •lower power (sometimes) •lower cost in volume •less vulnerable to tampering –Cons: •no modifications

5 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Circuits •A little electronics can go a long way •Design choices •Very few people are experts in everything - so work with other experts to achieve more •It is still good to know what is possible using other methods

6 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Logic circuits •discrete logic (74xx series components) •AND, OR, NOR, NAND, XOR, and their combinations... •Programmable logic is one way to consolidate digital logic circuits into fewer chips. •Can be very fast, 250MHz

7 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY State machines/lookup tables Source:

8 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY State machines/lookup tables •Simple state machines can be implemented as lookup charts •For a fixed set of inputs, a fixed set of outputs •Quick and easy to do with a PLD •Use logic design and logical algebra to reduce ‘instructions’ to a minimum

9 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY PLD •Programmable Logic Device •One-time or reprogrammable •Contain macrocells which consist of basic logic, a 1-bit memory, and multiplexers •Macrocells are linked by a configurable array of logic. •A good example is the 22V10 Gate Array Logic device &AMID=120

10 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Complex PLD •Complex PLDs borrow capabilities from FPGAs (next) but need to be pre- programmed •High-speed digital logic •Example: Cypress top-of-the-line Delta39K CPLD

11 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Verilog/VHDL •Verilog and VHDL are hardware description languages •With them, one can create hardware implementations through programming •Can be used to program all programmable devices and even design ASICs •Cypress Technical Article on VHDL

12 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY FPGA •Field Programmable Gate Array •Recofigurable logic device •Can be reprogrammed in a short time in- circuit •Xilinx FPGA brochure 1.pdf •Xilinx FPGA details

13 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DES/3DES En/Decryption •A complex algorithm in a 25MHz AVR microcontroller with FPGA at 4.2 MByte/Sec throughput

14 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ASIC •Application Specific Integrated Circuit •Multiple analog and/or digital components incorporated in a single chip •www.fincitec.com

15 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY System On Chip Source: A combination of a System On Chip and programmable logic

16 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY System On Chip pt2 Source: A basic PC on a chip, just add memory and connectors

17 TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Programmable System on Chip •Triscend •A fixed core (uProc) •configurable logic •configurable peripherals •Can reduce system cost significantly for low and medium volumes


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