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Hidrogeologi & Air Bawah Tanah (Hydrogeology and Groundwater)

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Presentation on theme: "Hidrogeologi & Air Bawah Tanah (Hydrogeology and Groundwater)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hidrogeologi & Air Bawah Tanah (Hydrogeology and Groundwater)

2 Star 5 Ogos 2003

3 Kita sudah bincang mengenai
Mineral Batuan Tanah Now AIR pulak

4 Objectives Memahami perbezaan bidang hidrogeologi dgn hidrologi
Meninjau sumber air dan kitar air Memahami konsep asas: keliangan (porosity), ketelapan (permeability), akuifer, akuitard, akuiklud. Memahami konsep paras air dan faktor yg mengawal kedudukannya Describe the character and behaviour of groundwater in various settings Discuss environmental problems related to groundwater.

5 Hydrogeology vs hydrology
Sama saja dalam segala segi Kalau beza sikit sangat

6 Groundwater as an important resource for
Drinking water (life) Erosion (subterranean caverns) (geological processes) Equalizer of stream flow (geological processes) Agriculture

7 Water holding capabilities of rock
Consider properties of rock for storage & transport of water: Porosity - percentage of rock's volume that is openings Permeability - ability of rock to transmit a fluid Aquifer - Rock that is permeable, able to store and transport water (examples) Aquitard - Rock that is impermeable, acts to hinder or prevent water movement (examples)

8 RESERVOIR AIR Infinite tapi pasti Luas tetapi terhad

9 Hydrologic cycle

10 Hydrologic cycle Powered by solar energy and gravity
Evaporation and precipitation Continuous recycling of water Where does water go that falls on the land? Runoff (air larian) Infiltration Evaporation (penyejatan) Temporary storage as snow and ice Temp. storage in lakes Temp storage in plants (evapotranspiration) and animals Chem reactions with rocks and minerals


12 Source of additional water? volcanism (steam)
Volcanism also causes melting of snow caps and mudflows as meltwater mixes with ash

13 Distribution of water on the Earth
Total = 326 million cubic miles Percentages 97.2% oceans 2.15% ice caps and glaciers .65% lakes, streams, groundwater, atmosphere (bandingkan dgn slaid no 5)

14 Hydrologic Cycle (in greater details)
A. Division of water on Earth 97.2% in oceans 2.15% in glaciers (largest source of fresh (non- saline) water on Earth) 0.62% in groundwater (underground aquifers) 0.017% in lakes 0.005% in soil moisture 0.001% in atmosphere 0.0001% in stream channels

15 Water budget Of all the water that comes out as rain on land:
50% is evaporated and transpired by plants 30% goes into runoff, eventually reaching the ocean 20% goes into groundwater

16 Porosity and Permeability
Dua ciri yg penting yg ada pada batuan dan tanah

17 Porosity = volume of pores/total volume
Porosity (keliangan) is the amount of pore space in a rock (the spaces between the grains) Porosity = volume of pores/total volume

18 Pores (liang)

19 Tazkirah/peringatan Tahukah anda semua jenis batuan mendak, igneus dan metamorfik? Tahukah anda ciri2 asas pada ketiga-tiga jenis batuan tersebut? (struktur kimia, sifat fizik dan kimia, proses kejadiannya/pembentukkannya)

20 Porosity is independent of grain size.
Porosity depends on: Sorting of the grains (or uniformity of grain size) Are the grains all the same size (well sorted), or are a variety of grain sizes present, with finer grains filling the spaces between the larger grains (poorly sorted)? Shape of the grains Packing and arrangement of grains. Cubic packing. Porosity = 47.64% Rhombohedral packing. Porosity = 25.95%

21 sorting High energy environment Low energy environment

22 Packing?

23 What are some examples of a rock with high porosity?
What are some examples of a rock with low porosity? JAWAPAN ANDA?

24 Wentworth scale - grain size scale
Particle name Particle diameter Boulders > 256 m Cobbles mm Pebbles mm Sand 1/16 – 2 mm Silt 1/ /16 mm (or mm) Clay < 1/256 mm (or < mm) <2 mikron

25 Pengelasan batuan mendak
1 Terrigenous (detrital or clastic) – bumi/benua Conglomerate or Breccia Sandstone Siltstone Shale claystone 2 Chemical/biochemical Evaporites Carbonate sedimentary rocks (limestones and dolostone) Siliceous sedimentary rocks 3 Organic (coals) Other – ironstones POROSITY? Ada/tak ada Rendah/tinggi

26 Permeability (ketelapan) is the ease with which fluids flow through a rock or sediment
A rock is permeable if fluids pass through it, and impermeable if fluid flow through the rock is negligible

27 Definition of permeability
Rujukan: Rock Slope Engineering by Hoek and Bray (1979)

28 Permeability depends on:
Grain size Coarser-grained sediments are more permeable than fine-grained sediments because the pores between the grains are larger. Sorting Grain shape Packing (controls pore size)

29 What are some examples of a rock with high permeability?
What are some examples of a rock with low permeability? JAWAPAN ANDA?

30 Classification of igneous rocks

31 Mineral yg terdapat pada zon metamorfik

32 Changes that occur in the transformation to become metamorphic rocks
Rumus Changes that occur in the transformation to become metamorphic rocks



35 Hubungan antara porosity-permeability


37 Aquifers and aquicludes
An aquifer is a water-bearing rock. Aquifers have high porosity and high permeability. Examples of rock types that could be aquifers? Aquicludes are water-excluding rocks. They have little or no porosity or permeability. Examples of rock types that could be aquicludes?


39 Note that some impermeable rock types may serve as aquifers if they are highly jointed. Water may be in the joints or cracks in the rock


41 Water table/Paras air Bergantung kpd topografi

42 Water table

43 The Water Table (Paras air)
When it rains, some of the water percolates or soaks into the ground. We call this infiltration. Some of the water is held in the soil because it clings to the soil particles because of molecular attraction. It may evaporate from the soil or be used by plants (zone of aeration, also called the vadose zone). Both air and water occupy the pores spaces.

44 Excess water penetrates downward until it reaches the water table
Excess water penetrates downward until it reaches the water table. Below this point, all of the pore spaces are filled with water (zone of saturation (ZON TEPU), also called the phreatic zone).

45 The water table is the top of the zone of saturation.
The water table is not flat. It mimics the topography, but is more subdued. It stands somewhat higher under hills, and lower under valleys.




49 Where the water table intersects (or lies above) the ground surface, springs, lakes, swamps, or rivers are present. In humid areas, groundwater movement supplies a flow of water to a stream or river. If a well is drilled, the waterlevel in the well is at the water table.

50 The position of the water table may fluctuate with droughts.
If water is withdrawn from a well, the water table is lowered in the immediate vicinity of the well. The lowered surface of the water table around a well forms a conical depression in the water table. It is called the cone of depression. If significant quantities of water are withdrawn from a well, the cone of depression may be so large that it affects the water level of other wells nearby.

51 Water table & groundwater flow
Processes Recharge-precipitation and infiltration Discharge-rivers, runoff, pumping Relation to topography Relation to seasonality

52 Water table & groundwater flow

53 groundwater

54 Artesian Wells

55 Perched water

56 Groundwater as resource
Seasonal changes Effects of pumping Pollution of groundwater Ogallala aquifer

57 Problems associated with groundwater withdrawal
Ground water depletion Subsidence Sinkhole formation Groundwater pollution or contamination Saltwater encroachment

58 Seawater before and after pumping

59 groundwater

60 groundwater

61 Ogallala Aquifer



64 Sensor untuk mengesan paras air (piezometer)






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