Presentation on theme: "The Effectiveness of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1The Effectiveness of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy A Comparative Study of Jakarta, Indonesiaand New South Wales, AustraliaCecep AminudinIndonesian Center for Environmental Law&Program Study of Environmental Science, University of IndonesiaUniversity of Indonesia
2BackgroundAir quality is very important for human, animal and plant lifeAir pollution from various sources (including industry) is an acute problem in the worldGovernments issued policy to solve the problemHowever, the research about the effectiveness of the air pollution control policy is still rare
3Research ObjectivesTo know the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta, IndonesiaTo know the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in New South Wales, AustraliaTo compare the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta, Indonesia and New South Wales, Australia
4The Framework of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy in Jakarta, Indonesia Indonesia 1945 ConstitutionLaw Number 23/1997 on Environmental Management ActGovernment Regulation 41/1999 on Air Pollution ControlBlue Sky ProgramPROPER ProgramMoE Decrees on Emission StandardNationalLocal Regulation 2/2005 on Air Pollution ControlGovernor Decree on Ambient Air StandardLocal(Jakarta)Governor Decree on Emission StandardClean Air ProgramAir Emission LicenseAir Pollution Emitters Industry
5The Framework of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy in NSW, Australia Australian Constitution and Legal System, Common LawIGAENEPMsNPINational Ambient Air QualityFederalProtection of the Environment Operation Act 1997 (POEO)States(NSW)Protection of the Environment Operation(Clean Air) RegulationNSW AQMP (Action for Air)Pollution reduction programLeak detection & repairNOx PolicyImplement POEO ActCleaner Production Unit in EPAImplement Clean Air RegulationLoad Based LicensingAir Pollution Emitters Industry
6The Comparison of Policy Instruments in Jakarta and NSW Applied Policy InstrumentsIndonesiaAustraliaNationalLocal (Jakarta)States (NSW)Standard SettingEmission Standard, Air Quality StandardAir Quality StandardEmission Standard,Best Practicable Means TechnologyAdministrative Law EnforcementLicense, Inspection, Mandatory Environmental AuditLicense, InspectionLicense, Inspection, Compliance Audit, Mandatory Environmental AuditPrivate Law EnforcementLegal SuitsCriminal Law EnforcementInvestigation, ProsecutionInvestigationMarket Based InstrumentLBLVoluntaryVoluntary Environmental AuditVoluntary Agreement (Superdasih)Publication and InformationPROPERNPIPublic ExpenditureTechnical AssistanceCleaner Production Unit
7Measuring Effectiveness Policy OutputIntermediate OutcomesEnd OutcomesAdministrative Law EnforcementPrivate Law EnforcementCriminal Law EnforcementMarket Based InstrumentsPublication and Information InstrumentsVoluntary InstrumentsPublic Expenditure InstrumentsIndustry behaviors to the regulationEmission load and concentration from industrial sourcesAir Quality in Industrial Area
8Research and Analysis Method Approachex-post facto policy evaluation researchPollutant Parametercarbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxyde(NOx), particulate, hydrocarbon and sulfur dioxide (SO2)Location of StudyJakarta and New South WalesScope of StudyProvince (Jakarta) to State (NSW)Data SourcesGovernments Report and Publication,Other Secondary Publication,InterviewAnalysisDescriptive Comparative
9The conditions of the policy outputs Administrative EnforcementCriminal EnforcementVoluntaryPrivate EnforcementInformation & PublicationEconomic InstrumentPublic Expenditure
10The Conditions of the Policy Intermediate Outcomes Jakarta:Reactive phase. The behavior of industry to comply with environmental regulation are low. Non compliance to emission standard between 17 – 76 %, non compliance on reporting obligation is about 30 %, the installation of air pollution equipment 0 out of 10 in 2004.NSW:Constructive to Proactive Phase. Non-compliance rate of industry is relatively low (12 – 15 %). the installation of air pollution equipment 17 out of 17 in 2000.
11The Conditions of Policy End Outcomes Nitrogen OxideJakartaNSWParticulateHydrocarbonSulfur DioxideCarbon Monoxide
12Conclusion1. In general, the industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta is not yet effective. Where the end policy outcomes, the intermediate policy outcomes are low and policy output is weak.In general, the industrial air policy control policy in NSW is potential to be effective. Where the end policy outcomes and the intermediate policy outcomes are better than in Jakarta and the policy outputs is stronger than in Jakarta.The industrial air pollution control policy in NSW is more effective than in Jakarta.
13Why There is a gap ?Lack of institutional capacity, strategy, political priority, and enforcement culture in Indonesia.
14Recommendations A concerted efforts of stakeholders …………………. Central GovernmentDonorsLaw EnforcersLocalGovernmentFinancialInstitutionsIndustriesNGO’s &Civil SocietyMarketsA concerted efforts of stakeholders ………………….
15Thank you……..... INDONESIAN CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JL. Dempo II No. 21, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta, INDONESIA