Presentation on theme: "The Effectiveness of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy A Comparative Study of Jakarta, Indonesia and New South Wales, Australia Cecep Aminudin Indonesian."— Presentation transcript:
The Effectiveness of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy A Comparative Study of Jakarta, Indonesia and New South Wales, Australia Cecep Aminudin Indonesian Center for Environmental Law & Program Study of Environmental Science, University of Indonesia University of Indonesia
Background Air quality is very important for human, animal and plant life Air pollution from various sources (including industry) is an acute problem in the world Governments issued policy to solve the problem However, the research about the effectiveness of the air pollution control policy is still rare
Research Objectives 1. To know the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta, Indonesia 2. To know the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in New South Wales, Australia 3. To compare the effectiveness of industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta, Indonesia and New South Wales, Australia
The Framework of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy in Jakarta, Indonesia Indonesia 1945 Constitution Law Number 23/1997 on Environmental Management Act Government Regulation 41/1999 on Air Pollution Control Air Pollution Emitters Industry Governor Decree on Ambient Air Standard Air Emission License Governor Decree on Emission Standard MoE Decrees on Emission Standard PROPER Program Clean Air Program NationalNational Local (Jakarta) Local (Jakarta) Blue Sky Program Local Regulation 2/2005 on Air Pollution Control
The Framework of Industrial Air Pollution Control Policy in NSW, Australia Australian Constitution and Legal System, Common Law IGAE Protection of the Environment Operation Act 1997 (POEO) Protection of the Environment Operation (Clean Air) Regulation Protection of the Environment Operation (Clean Air) Regulation NEPMs Load Based Licensing Air Pollution Emitters Industry NSW AQMP (Action for Air) Implement Clean Air Regulation Cleaner Production Unit in EPA Implement POEO Act NOx Policy Leak detection & repair Pollution reduction program NPI National Ambient Air Quality FederalFederal States (NSW) States (NSW)
The Comparison of Policy Instruments in Jakarta and NSW Policy InstrumentsApplied Policy Instruments IndonesiaAustralia NationalLocal (Jakarta)NationalStates (NSW) Standard SettingEmission Standard, Air Quality Standard Air Quality Standard Emission Standard, Best Practicable Means Technology Administrative Law Enforcement License, Inspection, Mandatory Environmental Audit License, Inspection License, Inspection, Compliance Audit, Mandatory Environmental Audit Private Law Enforcement Legal Suits Criminal Law Enforcement Investigation, Prosecution InvestigationInvestigation, Prosecution Market Based Instrument LBL VoluntaryVoluntary Environmental Audit Voluntary Agreement (Superdasih) Publication and Information PROPER NPI Public Expenditure Technical Assistance Cleaner Production Unit
Measuring Effectiveness Policy OutputIntermediate Outcomes End Outcomes Industry behaviors to the regulation Emission load and concentration from industrial sources Air Quality in Industrial Area •Administrative Law Enforcement •Private Law Enforcement •Criminal Law Enforcement •Market Based Instruments •Publication and Information Instruments •Voluntary Instruments •Public Expenditure Instruments •Administrative Law Enforcement •Private Law Enforcement •Criminal Law Enforcement •Market Based Instruments •Publication and Information Instruments •Voluntary Instruments •Public Expenditure Instruments
Research and Analysis Method Approachex-post facto policy evaluation research Pollutant Parametercarbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxyde(NOx), particulate, hydrocarbon and sulfur dioxide (SO2) Location of StudyJakarta and New South Wales Scope of StudyProvince (Jakarta) to State (NSW) Data SourcesGovernments Report and Publication, Other Secondary Publication, Interview AnalysisDescriptive Comparative
The conditions of the policy outputs Voluntary Administrative Enforcement Criminal Enforcement Private Enforcement Economic Instrument Public Expenditure Information & Publication
The Conditions of the Policy Intermediate Outcomes Jakarta: Reactive phase. The behavior of industry to comply with environmental regulation are low. Non compliance to emission standard between 17 – 76 %, non compliance on reporting obligation is about 30 %, the installation of air pollution equipment 0 out of 10 in 2004. NSW: Constructive to Proactive Phase. Non- compliance rate of industry is relatively low (12 – 15 %). the installation of air pollution equipment 17 out of 17 in 2000.
The Conditions of Policy End Outcomes Hydrocarbon Nitrogen Oxide Particulate Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Jakarta NSW
Conclusion 1. In general, the industrial air pollution control policy in Jakarta is not yet effective. Where the end policy outcomes, the intermediate policy outcomes are low and policy output is weak. 2. In general, the industrial air policy control policy in NSW is potential to be effective. Where the end policy outcomes and the intermediate policy outcomes are better than in Jakarta and the policy outputs is stronger than in Jakarta. 3. The industrial air pollution control policy in NSW is more effective than in Jakarta.
Why There is a gap ? Lack of institutional capacity, strategy, political priority, and enforcement culture in Indonesia.
Recommendations Industries Central Government NGO’s & Civil Society Law Enforcers Markets Donors Local Government Financial Institutions A concerted efforts of stakeholders ………………….
INDONESIAN CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JL. Dempo II No. 21, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta, 12120. INDONESIA email: email@example.com Thank you…….....