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Combining scientific excellence with commercial relevance Salinity Gradient Power Joost Veerman NHL November 26, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining scientific excellence with commercial relevance Salinity Gradient Power Joost Veerman NHL November 26, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 combining scientific excellence with commercial relevance Salinity Gradient Power Joost Veerman NHL November 26, 2009

2 2

3 3 Joost Veerman Wetsus, Leeuwarden salt + fresh  brackish + energy Salinity Gradient Power

4 4 1. Introduction 15 min - SPP, principles - Demo’s 2. Short Quiz 5 min 3. SGP in practice 10 min - power, efficiency and power density - ideas 4. Assignment comparison renewable en. sources 10 min 5. Evaluation10 min 6. Movie RED 10 min

5 5 Afsluitdijk

6 6 finished 1933 lenght 30 km width 90 m height 250 m

7 7 250 m ? Sea: 30 g/L = 0.5 mol/L = 500 mol/m 3 ( NaCl)  V = nRT (van ‘t Hoff, 1885) nRT 500*2*8.34*293  = = = 25*10 5 Pa V 1 = 25 Bar = 250 m H 2 O

8 8 What is Blue Energy? transport precipitation river discharge evaporation

9 9 transport precipitation river discharge evaporation SGP

10 10

11 11 Osmotische druk Rivier Zee

12 12 Exergy theoretical 1 m 3 river + 1 m 3 sea  1.7 MJ 1m 3 river + ∞ m 3 sea  2.6 MJ practical 1 m 3 river + 1 m 3 sea  1.0 MJ

13 13 How to milk the cow? Methods for generating SGP = Salinity Gradient Power) 1) RED = Reverse Electro Dialysis 2) PRO = Pressure Retarded Osmosis 3) VPDU = Vapor Pressure Utilization 4) Salinity shrinking ( Katchalsky ) 5) Other

14 14 RED-2

15 15 RED-2

16 16 PRO-1 Statkraft

17 17 PRO-2 Tomas Harrysson et al. Statkraft

18 18 R.S. Norman, Science 134 (1974) PRO-1

19 19 VPDU-1

20 20 VPDU-2 M. Olsson SCIENCE, VOL. 206, 26 OCTOBER 1979

21 21 Katchalsky

22 22

23 23 Quiz

24 24 Q 1

25 25 A 1

26 26 Q 1

27 27 A 2

28 28 Q 3

29 29 A 3

30 30 heat + salt + sweet  brackish + energy Energy content of river water in relation to diesel oil: times less times less times less Q 4Energy density

31 31 Energy density •Annihilation ( e - + e +  ) MJ/kg •Nuclear energy 10 8,, •Diesel 40,, •Blue Energy (riv.+ sea) 0.002,, •Sewage water (BOD) ca ,, A 5

32 32 If the sea should contain sugar instead of salt, which technique should be useless: •RED •PRO •VPDU Q-5

33 33 A-5

34 34 Katchalsky The belt is turning…… Clockswise Anticlockwise Not at all Q 6

35 35 Katchalsky A 6 Katchalsky A6

36 36

37 37 Worldwide potential ContinentNumber of rivers Total discharge (m 3 /s) Total power (GW) Africa Asia Australia Europe North America Oceania Oceans South America SUM

38 38 Worldwide potential ContinentNumber of rivers Total discharge (m 3 /s) Total power (GW) Africa Asia Australia Europe North America Oceania Oceans South America SUM

39 39 Worldwide potential River namereceiving seaDischarge (m 3 /s)Temp. ( o C)Salinity (PSU) Energy density (MJ/m3) Power (GW) 1ZaireAtlantic Ocean OrinocoAtlantic Ocean AmazonAtlantic Ocean GangesIndian Ocean NileMed. Sea MississippiGulf of Mexico ParanaAtlantic Ocean St. LawrenceAtlantic Ocean ZambeziIndian Ocean MekongPacific Ocean

40 40 SGP potential worldwide 1.7 TWatt Electricity consumtion 2.0 TWatt Other energy consumtion 14.0 TWatt Watt Watt SGP = = • people person

41 41 Europe: 600 GW from 767 rivers

42 42 Current Projects •KEMA feasibility study + Coyne et Bellier Red Sea  Dead Sea Israel, Palestina, Jordan 2008 – 2010 •Statkraft PRO plant Norway 2009 •REDstack RED plant in the Afsluitdijk the Netherlands 2015

43 43 Israel, Palestia, Jordan KEMA et al. Feasibility study

44 44 Norway Statkraft, Burum, 2-4 kWatt

45 45 The Netherlands

46 46 Afsluitdijk REDstack, Rijkswaterstaat et al. IJsselmeer + Waddenzee  Waddenzee 350 m3/s 350 MW

47 47 Philipsdam Merwede + Oosterschelde  Grevelingen 1000 m3/s 1000 MW

48 48 Vlaardingen Nw. Maas + Hartelkanaal  Nw. Waterweg 700 m3/s 500 MW R.W. Quak

49 49 Max. power Max. power = Energy density * flow P = A * B J m 3 P = * m 3 s In the Netherlands: P = 2.5* 10 6 * 3300 = 8.3 *10 9 Watt ( 70% ) IJssel (Afsluitdijk): P = 2.5* 10 6 * 500 = 1.3 *10 9 Watt ( 11% ) Electricity consumption in the Netherlands (2007)= 12 *10 9 Watt ( 100% )

50 50 1 x Afsluitdijk BE = 2 x Bergumermeer Power station 3 x Nuclear Power Station Borsele = =

51 51 Power = Energy density * flow P max = A * B P real = a*A * b* B or P real = a * b * P max maximization of a and b: a: energy efficiency : technical b: fuel availability : political, economical, ecological, technical, ……….. fuel availability factor : realistic a=0.3 b = 0.3 future a=0.7 b = 0.7

52 52 IJsselmeer: 1100 km 2 IJssel : 500 m 3 /s Without drain off during 24 hours : 4 cm rise of the level Consequences: 1)24 h buffering easy 2) Longer period storage discutable  no conversion losses Storage / buffering

53 53 or.....

54 54 My project Design

55 55 Piotr Długołęcki membranes University of Twente Prof. Dr. Ing Matthias Wessling Jan Post fouling Wageningen University Prof. Dr. C. Buisman Joost Veerman stack design Groningen University Prof. Ir. G.J. Harmsen Wetsus and Blue Energy

56 56 My project

57 57 3 stages Experiments: Effect on fuel efficiency & specific power co- OR countercurrent different spacers Serial OR oparallel Shortcut currents? co- OR countercurrent

58 58 Multi staging Conclusions: 1 stage: P=0.95 W/m 2 and Y gross = stages: P= 0.40 W/m 2 and Y gross =0.18

59 59 Multi staging Conclusions: 1 stage: P=0.95 W/m 2 and Y gross = stages: P= 0.40 W/m 2 and Y gross =0.18

60 60

61 61 Comparison of renewable energy sources assignment 1

62 62 Comparison sustainable energy sources

63 63 Each group fills in 1 aspect - for each mentioned sub-aspect - add ( if possible) additional sub-aspects scale: 1 = very bad 2 = bad 3 = neutral 4 = good 5 = very good when finished: report the data a.s.a.p. We show the scores live! l time: max. 10 min.

64 64

65 65

66 66 Conclusion is the best

67 67 Conclusion is the best but variation is better ! ! ! ! Schijf van vijf

68 68 •Movie B.E.

69 69 ?

70 70

71 71

72 72

73 73


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