Presentation on theme: "THE IPPC and PRA: Bram de Hoop International Standards Adviser Holland"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE IPPC and PRA: Bram de Hoop International Standards Adviser Holland What is coming out of the flying saucer?? Aliens? No way? Invasive alien species as defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity may well be this beautiful flower.This presentation is about pest risk analysis for environmental risks – a new international standard which was adopted in 2002.Being the international standards adviser of the Netherlands on Plant Health issue, I am happy with more focus on Pest Risk Analysis.Why? It allows for more focus on prevention of plant pest risks instead of repairing man-made disasters.Pest risk analysis is one of the central elements for protecting plant health today, as reflected by the International Plant Protection Convention. The first international pest risk analysis standard became available in February Six years later, in April 2002 the international plant protection community has adopted a supplementary standard to allow for specific focus on environmental risk.Are we faced with new risks?No, the risks have been there for a long time looming in the dark. Environmental risks have been addressed before in the plant health field, as will be addressed by the next presentations. However, with an increase in global trade of plants and plant material the proportion of this risk becomes greater.The new supplement standard adopted in the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention provides guidance for countries how to assess these risks and determine suitable management options. This presentation will focus on elements which are new to pest risk analysis in relation to environmental risks.Global harmonisation benefits the environment and plant biodiversity
2 THIS PRESENTATION The IPPC: a rock between two bolders Global harmonisation: PRA & Standard SettingPRA & NEW elements of risk analysisPRA: Who is to benefit?This presentation is short and reflects on:The use of PRA for environmental risks within the framework of IPPC as compared to other international agreements including the Convention on Biological Diversity and the World Trade Organisation.The need for Pest Risk AnalysisWhat’s new in the PRA standard for environmental risksWho is to benefit from pest risk analysis in the end.
3 IPPC: A rock between two bolders WTOCBDIPPCTRADE LEGAL FRAMEWORKBIODIVERSITY PROTECTION FRAMEWORKIPPC advantages: - national plant protection organisations- expertise, inspectors, legal framework- direct contact with stakeholdersOld tools for new interests: The well-established International Plant Protection Convention offers a well established regulatory framework for new international agreements such as the World Trade Organisation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Economic interests and environmental concerns are the guiding forces of international and national policies. Harmonization on these issues takes place within the World Trade Organisation framework and the Convention on Biological Diversity. There is often a conflict of interest between the intentions of both international agreements, especially as they both address diverse interests varying from gene patenting to fair trade of agricultural products.The IPPC forms a neutral framework based on life long technical expertise, inspectors in the field and direct contact with stakeholders.
4 ? WTO: MORE BUREAUCRACY? Duration of trade rounds: What can we expect from WTO for protecting our biological resources against invasive alien species? No easy solutions as we have seen from the recent failure in Mexico. The WTO remains of practical importance for offering an international binding judicial framework.
5 CBD: CLEARING HOUSE? INFORMATION Regulating authorities? INCLUDING NPPOsINFORMATIONTransparency and sharing of scientific, technical advice is offered by the Convention on Biological Diversity. But no organisation is in place at the national level for making use of all this information.National Plant Protection Organisations operating under the IPPC can put knowledge into practice. NPPOs have the manpower to really do something instead of creating piles of paperwork and promises. Paperwork such as plant protection regulations are still needed.
6 How to develop regulations? 1. STANDARD SETTING2. Pest Risk AnalysisImporting countries can develop phytosanitary regulations in two ways:On the basis of standards: such as the international phytosanitary standard for wood packaging material Advantage: burden of proof is with the exporting country. Although importing country still has to proof to be at risk. Disadvantage: there will never be enough standards to protect the still wide plant biodiversity and cover all possible pathways.Therefore pest risk analysis will always be needed: Disadvantage: burden of proof is with the importing country. Advantage: more targetted approach.It was soon recognised that Pest Risk Analysis is one of the most important reference standards. The first PRA standard therefore developed was ISPM 2, adopted in February 1996.
7 OVERVIEW PRA STAGE 1: Initiation - What triggers a PRA? STAGE 2: Pest Risk Assessment - Can the pest enter, establish and have an impact?STAGE 3: Pest Risk Management - How to manage the risk?All good things come threefold: like with faith, love and hope. There are three stages to pest risk analysis:Initiation – how to get started (pest, policy, commodity)Pest risk assessment – can it enter, establish and have an impact?Pest risk management – if the risk is unacceptable are there management options to reduce the risk. Management options may range from nothing to prohibition.
8 Reason PRA:Pest outbreak, Interception, Netherlands Plant Protection ServiceInitiationReason PRA:Pest outbreak, Interception,Request for import, Validation of new risksSTOP??Identifyhazard(s)Estimate thelikelihood ofoccurrenceEstimate the magnitudeof the consequencesDevelop conclusionsand describeuncertaintyRisk AssessmentMitigationrequiresassessmentSTOP??DecisionmakingRiskrequiresmitigationRisk ManagementDevelop recommendationsand describe uncertaintyEvaluate mitigation options for:-Efficacy-Feasibility-ImpactsIdentify mitigationoptionsPRA overview – adapted from Bob Griffin, the former IPPC Coordinator.Diamonds = decisions1. When to start? - There will always be surprises in life: following an emergency situation (pest outbreak) - Request for import of a commodity not previously imported.- New policy: how can we improve our way of protecting plants? => do pest risk analysis.Following initial information gathering one can decide to stop: for instance a pest appears to be widely distributed in the PRA area.2. Pest risk assessment - Categorize all pests for the pathway (quick screening).- Identify hazards: can the pest enter (e.g. apple fruits coming from an exporing country with fire blight), can it establish (are the ecoclimatological conditions favourable for the pest to establish?), and can it do damage (vulnerable protected plant species could be exterminated or agricultural industry interests). - Likelihood of occurence: are the hazards real hazards? (apple fruits are not a pathway/ no proper host or habitat for pest/ no interests of industry or nature conservation industry). - Worst case scenario’s – What could happen?- There is always uncertainty! Either absolute with current technology (are there aliens somewhere in the universe) or lack of time (no time to research host range of pest).DECISION: Is the risk unacceptable – if acceptable – Stop! Use resources for other PRAs.3. Pest risk management: - Can we stop entry by import regulations?- Can we stop establishment by regulating certain uses (e.g. prohibition to plant in nature conservation areas)- Can we reduce economic impact by different agricultural systems?Criteria: costs, stakeholders, results.END-RESULT PRA: Recommendations to do or not do something. DECISION: go or no go. Publish phytosanitary measures and make sure that your trading partners have enough time to make sure they comply with these regulations.Decisionmaking- List and selection management options- Publish phytosanitary measures- Notify FAO, EPPO and WTONomeasures
9 INPUTS FOR PRA Laboratory Up-to-date literature and statistical data Experts (risks - pests - plants - measures)Decision makersTime …PRA requires a lot of resources but also flexibility!!Example:Commodity PRA may take up to a year to complete because of the multitude of pests to be examined.Pest PRA may be finished in minutes in case no potential host is available in the PRA area (e.g. cotton bollworm for countries who do not grow cotton).
10 ENVIRONMENT PRA What’s new? COMMODITY IS PEST!MORE FOCUS ON WEEDSHabitat instead of host!Gladiolus segetumweed in FranceQuarantine pest AustraliaApril 2002: a new international phytosanitary standard as part of the PRA family.WHAT’s new:1. Initiation: Is the commodity a pest? Usually you look at the commodity (e.g. apple) and you think of what kind of pests could hitchhike along. However the plant or plant product, or the biological control agent could be a pest itself Plants can be plant killers: they can destroy vulnerable plant ecosystems (see Prunus serotina killing undergrowth in Holland) or they can severely affect agriculture. Therefore more focus on weeds. 3. Plants usually compete with other plants for the same habitat. Therefore instead of focus on potential hosts in an area, the environment PRA looks at habitats.
11 MOST IMPORTANT: Liaison with other sectors NATURE conservationFORESTRY & AGRICULTUREThe ENVIRONMENT PRA also recognizes cross-cutting issues and overlap situations. Other regulatory authorities or interest groups with opposing interests could be involved.Hopefully our PRA system will not suffer from too much talking.PUBLIC CONCERNSTRADE
12 Why do Risk Analysis? To identify risk. Netherlands Plant Protection ServiceWhy do Risk Analysis?To identify risk.To identify costs and benefits.To manage risks.TO JUSTIFY MEASURES.Why do PRA? 1 – 4To justify measures both in WTO context and providing new information to the CBD clearing house. The loop is closed.
13 How to protect plant biodiversity. (Source: Fleischer, G How to protect plant biodiversity? (Source: Fleischer, G. (1998) Ökonomische Bewertungskriterien in der Pflanzenschutzpolitik - Das Beispsiel des Zulassungsverfahresn., Landwirtschaft und Umwelt Band 15. Kiel, Vauk.1. PROHIBITIONHIGHMEDIUMHow to fit PRA into existing phytosanitary regulations models. The following models exist for using or not using PRA.Prohibition:Risk reduction is high.Costs also high for closing borders.Trade opportunities low and not consistent with IPPC and WTO obligations.LOW
14 How to protect plant biodiversity. (Source: Fleischer, G How to protect plant biodiversity? (Source: Fleischer, G. (1998) Ökonomische Bewertungskriterien in der Pflanzenschutzpolitik - Das Beispsiel des Zulassungsverfahresn., Landwirtschaft und Umwelt Band 15. Kiel, Vauk.2. Risk analysis: ZERO RISKHIGHMEDIUMOPTION 2:Risk analysis on the basis of zero risk: - Risk reduction (green) is high.- Costs (red) are high for putting in place expensive and time consuming risk reduction methods.- Trade opportunities (yellow) are medium because of relatively high costs.LOW
15 How to protect plant biodiversity. (Source: Fleischer, G How to protect plant biodiversity? (Source: Fleischer, G. (1998) Ökonomische Bewertungskriterien in der Pflanzenschutzpolitik - Das Beispsiel des Zulassungsverfahresn., Landwirtschaft und Umwelt Band 15. Kiel, Vauk.3. MARKET FORCESHIGHMEDIUMOption 3: NO PRA and allow importers and exporters to decide on the basis of market demands (such as call for environment friendly products)Risk reduction (green) low of course.Costs are low because of minimal import regulatory system requirements.Trade opportunities are high but could be severly hampered from time to time by public unrest.Not in line with objectives of the international plant protection convention and the CBD.LOW
16 How to protect plant biodiversity. (Source: Fleischer, G How to protect plant biodiversity? (Source: Fleischer, G. (1998) Ökonomische Bewertungskriterien in der Pflanzenschutzpolitik - Das Beispsiel des Zulassungsverfahresn., Landwirtschaft und Umwelt Band 15. Kiel, Vauk.4. RISK ANALYSIS+STAKEHOLDERSHIGHMEDIUMThe most optimal model 4: Pest Risk Analysis with involvement of stakeholders.Risk reduction (green) is high because stakeholders can offer valuable expertise and can help with risk reduction.Costs (red) are medium, because more time is needed for stakeholder consultation. Cost saving is achieved because stakeholders can share in the burden.Trade opportunities (yellow) are high, because concerns of trade stakeholders are taken into account.LOW
17 The bottom line…. Gladiolus segetum Always to be remembered For the love of plants, the environment Pest Risk Allows us to look more closely at the plant itself, its habitat and its benefits for the world we live in today.