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National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General 2013-10-14.

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Presentation on theme: "National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General 2013-10-14."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General

2 • Agency for foreign trade and trade policy • Promote free trade and transparent rules • Our main task is to improve opportunities for international trade National Board of Trade 2

3 Objectives •An effective Internal Market •An open trade policy in the EU •A strong multilateral international trading system 3

4 The Swedish Government: ….. create growth and employment in Sweden by promoting free trade and dismantling of trade barriers 4

5 F ree trade •Trade and welfare •Sweden is very dependant on international trade 5

6 Developing countries •Analyses of developing countries perspective •Competence and capacity building programmes in developing countries •Open Trade Gate Sweden 6

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8 Ljuset är proportionell mot den ekonomiska aktiviteten 8

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10 International trade: theories and practices •Why do people trade? •Situation and developments in world trade •Swedish trade patterns and developments •Trade policies •Trade and Climate Change •Development perspective 10

11 Swedish trade dependance Exports/GDP > 50 % Imports/GDP = almost 50 % 11

12 Källa: WTO

13 Exports of goods and services, percent of GDP ( )

14 Global 10 %20 % 30 % Sweden 14 %35 %> 50 % Exports/GDP 14

15 Källa: UNCTAD 15

16 Global10 % 24 % Sweden30 %> 50 % Foreign investments/GDP 16

17 Imports of goods and services increase faster then GDP in almost every country FDI´s grow even faster 17

18 “Nations do not trade, nor do sectors. It is firms that trade” “… This simple truth makes it clear that understanding the firm-level facts is essential to good policy-making in Europe. The view that it is important to focus on the firm rather than the sector is the single most important message of recent developments in international economics”. Citat från EU-sponsrade forskningsprojektet: European Firms in a Global Economy (EFIGE) 18

19 •Total trade between North America, Asia and Europé = 23 % of world trade •Trade within the three regions= 53 % of world trade - Europe 31 % (single market 25 %) - Asia 14 % - North America 8 % International trade is still regional 19

20 951 mdr $ (7 %) 122 mdr $ (1 %) 40,5 mdr $ (0,3 %) 4243mdr $ (31%) 103 mdr $ (1 %) 1889mdr $ (14%) 282 mdr $ (2%) 787mdr $ (6 %) 315 mdr $ (2 %) 1148 mdr $ (8%) 93,4 mdr $ (1%) 1108 mdr $ (8%) Intra regional handel Inter-regional handel 477mdr $ (4 %) Källa: WTO International Trade Statistics

21 Källa: UN comtrade database (Wits) EU-27:s intra- och extra regional varuhandel som andel av total handel

22 Sveriges intra- och extra-handel med varor som procentandel av total handel Källa: UN comtrade database (WITS) 22

23 Trends in world trade – long term •Global market place •Global Value Chains •Goods and Services •Servicification •e-commerce • Movement of persons •Data flows •Digitalization Other tendencies - short term? •Crises effects, politics •New protectionism •Public procurement, internationally, EU, Sweden, locally •Local production Climate concerns Emerging markets 23

24 Export by regions (1963 och 2007) 50 24

25 Global Value Chains and Trade •The traditional picture: An industry in one country produces goods for exports to and final consumption in another country 25

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27 Global Value Chains and Trade •The new reality: The production is fragmented Inputs and components are produced in many countries and the product is assembled in many countries 27

28 A typical Swedish motor vehicle is only 50 % Swedish… Made in Sweden? 28

29 Made In The World 29

30 Källa: Egna beräkningar baserade på SCB:s Input-Outputtabeller 30

31 Swedish exports are not only made in Sweden OECD-average: 31 % 31

32 Sectors Tjänstesektorer 32

33 Exportvärdet jämfört med förädlingsvärdet från exporten 33

34 En Boeing Dreamliner : Made in America? 43 subcontractors Spread on 135 production facilities in the world Among other things, wings made in Japan, the engines of in the U.S. and Great Britain, the doors in France and Sweden 70 % of the components are manufacturesd outside the U.S. ”Källa: Newhouse, John and A. A, Knopf (2007), Boeing vs Airbus, The inside story of the greatest international competetion in business, New York, USA 34

35 Over 50 % of world trade is trade in inputs 35

36 “Everybody is in Services” – The Impact of Servicification in Manufacturing on Trade and Trade Policy 36

37 Servicification = more and more services as inputs and outputs in manufacturing Increased dependence in the manufacturing industry on •Purchased service inputs •In-house service production •Sales of services integrated into products •Sales of services alongside products •Service import and export …supports competitiveness, productivity and trade 37

38 Almost 50 % of the employees in Swedish manufactoring have services jobs 38

39 Services and Global Value Chains 39

40 1. Services as enablers R&D/ Design Raw Materials Inter- mediate Inputs Semi Finished Goods Final Good Assembly and Packaging Ware- house Retail/ Delivery Customer Service Source: USITC 2011 Financial services Quality Control Services Logistics Services Marketing Services 40

41 Minecraft by Mojang AB •Game idea: Mining different blocks to create and build structures of choice •First released: May 2009 •Official release: November 2011 •Original developer: Markus ‘Notch’ Persson •Owner: Notch Development AB •Current Developer: Mojang AB (under license) •Sold copies: 18 million (Dec 2012) – 40,000 copies/day 41

42 Lessons from video game sector •R&D heavy, cutting edge of ICT-sector •”Live development” •Digital distribution •Digital tasks outsourced •Digital ecosystems 42

43 Countries involved in the GVC • USA • Germany • England • Scotland • Holland • Canada • Japan • Denmark • Finland • Sweden Plus: UN Habitat, and other countries (”Community”, marketing and ”3rd Party Servers) Without order of importance 43

44 Services provide over 50 % of the value from exports from OECD countries 44

45 Svensk export mätt i förädlings- värde per sektor (2008)

46 Källa: SCB 46

47 Var hamnar svensk export? Källa: OECD/Kommerskollegiums egna beräkningar 47

48 Källa: SCB 48

49 • E-commerce • New options • New barriers • Cloud computing 49

50 “While the nature of global trade has changed, trade regulation in the EU and other OECD economies has remained largely the same.” 50

51 EU trade policy •Common policy •EU acts as one part in WTO •Customs Union •Import Quotas •Antidumping and other safeguards • Free Trade Agreements •Common Agicultural Policy, CAP 51

52 Number of FTAs Notified to GATT/WTONotified to GATT/WTO and in force WTO is founded Source: WTO RTA gateway FTAs notified and active ( ) 52

53 Genomsnittlig tullnivå för industrivaror i i-länder 53

54 Tullnivåer i i-länder och u-länder 54

55 How does trade effect CO2 emissions? •Transports •Production: location, methods •Innovations and technical developments are spread 55

56 The relationship between international trade and transport modes Källa: UNCTAD (2008) Andel av världshandeln i vikt (2006) 56

57 CO 2 emissions by sector and the transport sector Källor: IEA (2011) och OECD (2010b) 57

58 Emission intensity for different modes Källa: Cristea m.fl. (2011) CO 2 -utsläpp per ton-km 58

59 “Nations do not trade, nor do sectors. It is firms that trade” “… This simple truth makes it clear that understanding the firm-level facts is essential to good policy-making in Europe. The view that it is important to focus on the firm rather than the sector is the single most important message of recent developments in international economics”. Citat från EU-sponsrade forskningsprojektet: European Firms in a Global Economy (EFIGE) 59

60 Surveys and publications •Reports in Swedish and English •Website: 60

61 Trade related Development Cooperation Contribute to developing countries •trade possibilities and •trade negotiation capacity 61

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