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Si può esportare la democrazia? Lunedì 13 Maggio 2013 Corso Teorie della globalizzazione Canale B, Laurea magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche,

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Presentation on theme: "Si può esportare la democrazia? Lunedì 13 Maggio 2013 Corso Teorie della globalizzazione Canale B, Laurea magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Si può esportare la democrazia? Lunedì 13 Maggio 2013 Corso Teorie della globalizzazione Canale B, Laurea magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche, LUISS Professor Daniele Archibugi

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3 4 June American Troops Entering in Rome from Porta Maggiore

4 The US considered Italy as an occupied country, the Italians considered the Americans liberators

5 The success story: Democracy exported Italy, Germany, Japan after World War II Lessons from WWII: no one single shot was fired against American Soldiers in Europe and in Japan In other cases, happy ending has not been reached. The story of WWII cannot be generalized

6 Pei and Kaspar, Carnegie Endowment for Peace Of US attempts to build democratic nations by military means after WWII only 2 were successful in the post-war period: Panama (1989) Grenada (1983) Major failures in South Vietnam,Cambodia, Haiti, Cuba (1898, 1906, 1917)

7 The state of the art Countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq are far from being democratic Bosnia and Kosovo are still in troubles Elections have become de facto ethnic census The liberators encounter much greater hostility than expected Intervention for regime change is leading other countries to find security under nuclear deterrence (North Korea and Iran)

8 Why is it so difficult to implement the program? Lack of trust: rather than liberators, military troops are perceived as occupiers After WWII, the US has started all wars and has never been attacked by a state Those who declare to support democracy often supports despotic governments and unconstitutional coup detat In many countries there was not an explicit popular request for democracy

9 Can we make sense of successes and failures? Three simple tests: Who has started the war? How is perceived in the public the democratic child-minder? Is there an endogenous democratic fabric?

10 The problem legitimacy Internal democracy cannot be expanded at the expenses of international legitimacy If there is a demand of democracy, it is not the task of a state, but of the international community to satisfy it

11 All in all: What If if the war for democracy will be effective if an explicit request of democratic government has emerged in the population if International Organizations (UN Security Council) will provide authorization should military means to impose democracy be accepted?

12 Means should be consistent with ends Warfare is often using methods that are inconsistent with the basic principles of democracy There is no guarantee that the ends will be achieved by those who have broken the means And therefore, resistants are not entirely wrong when they doubt about the intentions of their would be liberators

13 What can be done to foster democracy? Something can be done because democracies are the most powerful nations of the world A shift towards solidarity among democratic regimes, and of democracy-building is today much needed

14 Traditional methods Incentives from democratic (and rich) countries to new democracies Participation to International Organizations The case of the European Union as a promoter and stabilizer of democracy in many countries

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16 Two opposite perspectives on how to export democracy The Bush Administration Use military means and threats Keep total control over national issues Hierarchical scale between the most to the least democratic The European Union Membership as an economic incentive Foreign policy coordination Equal dignity of all member states

17 Not Only Universal, but also Cosmopolitan Democracy Acceptance of the substantial variety of models of democracy Procedures about legitimate forms of democracy should also be considered Universal democracy impinges on unilateralism Cosmopolitan democracy on multilateralism

18 Not Only Universal, but also Cosmopolitan Democracy Universal democracy is concerned with internal democratization only, and it searches its legitimacy internally in each state Cosmopolitan democracy is also concerned with democratizing the global system and searches its legitimacy also in international organizations

19 What does it mean the concept of democracy beyond the State? Transparency: Bentham, Madison, Kant Govern in the interest of all and not of the majority (or the group appointing the government) Accountability to all stakeholders Minimisation of organised violence Development and respect of the rule of law

20 Cosmopolitan Democracy as an Anti-hegemonic Project The expansion of democracy beyond the state will limit the action of the new hegemonic powers It will increase the voice and legitimacy of an increasing number of players It challenges the legitimacy of unlawful power, within and beyond states


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