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AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011 VERSITETUNI Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment.

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Presentation on theme: "AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011 VERSITETUNI Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment."— Presentation transcript:

1 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011 VERSITETUNI Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment Ulla E. Bollmann 1, Jes Vollertsen 2, Kai Bester 1 30. Jan. 2014 1 Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark 2 Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark ueb@dmu.dk www.waterpurification.au.dk

2 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Introduction › State-of-the-art in material protection › Preservatives for polymer based coatings: façade render and paint › Wood protection, Roof protection (flat roofs) › Content in exterior renders and paints › 2-4 different biocides, 0.1-1 g kg -1 each › Total: 0.2% in render, 0.2-0.4% in exterior paints › Different compounds with biocidal effects › Isothiazolinones, carbamates, phenylureas, triazines, triazoles used as algaecides, fungicides and bactericides › Hydrophilic molecules with toxic effects 2 Burkhardt et al., WS&T 2007, 56, (12), 63-67 Schoknecht et al., ES&T 2009, 43, (24), 9321-9328 Burkhardt et al., WS&T 2011, 63, (9), 1974-1982 Biocides in building material Principal construction of external thermal insulation composite system (ETICS )

3 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Introduction 3 biocides Biocides in building material Effects on aquatic organisms Which compounds? Concentrations? Dynamics? First flush emissions? Which compounds? Concentrations? Dynamics? First flush emissions? ? Biocides in building material › Laboratory experiments: › Constantly soaked test material and dipping experiments (wet and dry cycles) › Leaching dependent on: Substance & render properties, Immersion › Field study: › Concentrations in small Swiss catchment: 0.01-1 µg L -1 (Terbutryn, Carbendazim, Mecoprop) Burkhardt et al. 2007, 2009 & 2012, Schoknecht et al. 2003 & 2009, Wangler et al. 2012, Wittmer et al. 2010

4 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Catchment › Silkeborg (Denmark) › 21.5 ha, 7 ha connected to sewer, separated sewer system › Suburban, residential, 140 well-kept single family houses › 5 % equipped with renders/paints, 20 % (painted) wood, 75 % brick- facades 4

5 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Sampling / Analysis › Flow proportional high resolution sampling with automatic water sampler › October 2011-June 2012 › Solid phase extraction › High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) 5

6 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 › 191 samples, 11 biocides Concentrations 6 AA-EQS for fresh water DIRECTIVE 2013/39/EU Terbutryn: 65 ng L -1 Cybutryn: 2.5 ng L -1 Diuron: 200 ng L -1 Isoproturon: 300 ng L -1 IT: Isothiazolinone Bollmann et al., 2014, submitted

7 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Mass loads BiocideMass load* ± standard deviation [mg event -1 ] without peak events Mass load of the highest peak event [mg event -1 ] (number of peak events) Emissions per average house per event [µg event ‑ 1 house ‑ 1 ] Carbendazim (CD)7.0 ± 6.0No peak event identified50 Terbutryn (TB)8.3 ± 5.677 (1)59 Cybutryn (IRG)0.02 ± 0.030.2 (1)0.1 Diuron (DR)0.8 ± 0.610.1 (1)6 Isoproturon (IP)0.4 ± 0.315.3 (2)3 Propiconazole (PPZ)0.6 ± 0.42.3 (1)4 Tebuconazole (TBU)0.4 ± 0.3No peak event identified3 Methylisothiazolinone (MI)1.6 ± 3.5No peak event identified11 Benzoisothiazolinone (BIT)0.1 ± 0.22.6 (2)1 N-Octylisothiazolinone (OIT)0.03 ± 0.053.7 (2)0.2 Mecoprop (MCPP)0.8 ± 0.7No peak event identified6 * in order to enable the calculation of the average values mass loads < LOD were set to zero. 7 IT: Isothiazolinone Bollmann et al., 2014, submitted

8 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Biocides in buildings 8 biocides Biocides in building material Effects on aquatic organisms Which compounds? Concentrations? Dynamics? First flush emissions? Which compounds? Concentrations? Dynamics? First flush emissions? ?

9 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics › How are the biocides emitted within the storm event? › Particle mobilisation in road run-off with first flush 9 Time Load Water Particles, Heavy metals

10 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics › Common event 10 TB: Terbutryn, CD: Carbendazim, IP: Isoproturon, TBU: Tebuconazole, MCPP: Mecoprop Bollmann et al., 2014, submitted

11 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 › First flush: occurs irregularly Emission dynamics 11 First flush TB: Terbutryn, CD: Carbendazim, IP: Isoproturon, TBU: Tebuconazole, MCPP: Mecoprop Bollmann et al., 2014, submitted

12 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics 12 First flush for selected biocides Fast mobilization of biocides from the façade surface Unnecessary loss of substance Fine tune application? No first flush for biocides Constant emissions Partitioning from the facade No selected stormwater treatment possible Common eventSpecial event

13 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics › What is influencing the leaching? › Correlation of the concentration or acc. mass load per event with: › Rain amount / accumulated flow › Length of the event › Rain intensity › Length of the dry period prior to the event › Wind driven rain intensity 13

14 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics 14 Wind Driven Rain (WDR) WDRWDR WIND RAINRAIN Blocken & Carmeliet, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 2004, 92, 1079 Burkhardt et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 5497 with C C = catchment specific factor Mass flow M during respective event with C S = substance specific constant

15 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Emission dynamics 15 CD: Carbendazim, TB: Terbutryn, PPZ: Propiconazole, TBU: Tebuconazole Bollmann et al., 2014, submitted

16 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Biocides in buildings 16 biocides Biocides in building material Effects on aquatic organisms Conclusions

17 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Conclusions › Monitoring › Biocides also important pollutants in Danish urban areas › Different footprint than in other European countries Hard to set-up a sound monitoring strategy › Emission dynamics › Usually rather constant throughout an event › Irregular first flush phenomena › Indication for correlation between occurrence in storm water and wind driven rain › Treatment › Need to take the dynamics of the biocide emission into account 17

18 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011DYNAMICS OF BIOCIDE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDINGS IN A SUBURBAN STORMWATER CATCHMENT U. E. Bollmann, J. Vollertsen, K. Bester Jan. 2014 Acknowledgement › Scientific cooperation: › Jan Carmeliet and Timothy Wangler (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) › Michael Burkhardt (HSR, Rapperswil, Switzerland) › Diverse companies in the sector for the willingness to share materials and knowledge › Financial support: › Danish EPA through the project Methods for the improvement of scenarios concerning the emission of biocides from buildings (667-00065 & 667-00066) › AUFF grant: Advanced water purification using bio-inorganic nano catalysts and soil filters (www.waterpurification.au.dk) 18 Thank you for your attention!

19 AARHUS UNIVERSITET TITEL PÅ PRÆSENTATION NAVN NAVNESEN 2. MAJ 2011 VERSITETUNI Dynamics of biocide emissions from buildings in a suburban stormwater catchment Ulla E. Bollmann 1, Jes Vollertsen 2, Kai Bester 1 30. Jan. 2014 1 Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark 2 Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark ueb@dmu.dk www.waterpurification.au.dk


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