Hvordan blev I selv undervist i engelsk grammatik i gymnasiet?
Forskellige dilemmaer i arbejdet med grammatik • Hvorfor arbejde med grammatik? • Præskriptiv eller deskriptiv? • Proaktiv eller reaktiv/integreret? • Teaching grammar or teaching learners? • Deklarativ eller procedure viden? • Induktiv eller deduktiv? • På dansk eller engelsk?
Sprogets tre dimensioner FORM How is it formed? (Accuracy) MORPHOSYNTAX MEANING What does it mean? (Meaningfulness) SEMANTICS USE When/Why is it used? (Appropriateness) PRAGMATICS Based on Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman: The Grammar Book, p. 4
For each of these grammatical structures, which of the three dimensions do you think Danish learners will have most problems with: how it is formed, what it means, or when and why to use it? 1. Phrasal verbs (e.g. My boyfriend ran up a huge phone bill) 2. The simple or continuous perspective (e.g. She painted/was painting the house) 3. The –ly of adverbs (e.g. She took it very seriously) 4. Irregular plural (e.g. mouse – mice) Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 34 Sprogets tre dimensioner
Traditional assessment:Interlanguage analysis: - Focus on the target language- Focus on the learner language - Compares learner language to- Sees learner language as a the target language language in progress - Focus on product- Focus on process - Points out mistakes - Points out progress - Focus on the things the learner- Focus on the things the cannot do learner can do - Summative assessment- Formative assessment Fig. 2-2. Differences between the traditional way of assessing learner language and the interlanguage analysis Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 22
Sprogets tre dimensioner - hvordan læres de? • FORM-dimensionen: – Mange gentagelser – Task-Based Learning • MEANING-dimensionen: – Dictogloss – Løbediktat • USE-dimensionen: – Rollespil
Eksempel på induktiv øvelse 1. If ‘his girl friend’ is the answer to a question, what is the question we could ask to get this answer in the following sentence? Scott gave his girl friend a bunch of flowers 2. Form questions that will give you the words in boldface as answers: a.Mr Block found his daughter a job b.Bob made a bookcase for Sally c.Go find me a pencil d.I explained the problem to my dog e.Peter gave the book to Alice, who was his girlfriend at the time f.He asked a favour of her 3. The words in bold are Indirect Objects in the sentences. Form a rule that will help you find the Indirect Object. Why are IOs often persons? What does the IO do in a sentence? 4. Have you noticed what forms IOs can have? 5. In which order do we often find the DO and IO? What happens with the form of the IO if we use the order IO + DO? Bruntt & Bryanne, pp. 121-122
Eksempel på automatiseringsøvelse 1.Here are some dilemmas. Discuss in groups what you would do in the situations below? You might start: I would… or I might…. 2.Think of other dilemmas you could meet and discuss how to solve them: – Your parents don’t approve of your new girl-/boyfriend – Your best friend and you both have spare time jobs in the same shop. You discover that (s)he has stolen 2,000kr – You fall in love with the boyfriend or girlfriend of your best friend. – A classmate cheated in the last English test. Should you tell someone? – Your friend has bought a new pair of jeans and thinks she looks absolutely fantastic. But you actually think they don´t suit her at all and now she wants to wear them on Friday when she hopes to get a date with a boy she has a crush on. Would/should you tell her? Bruntt & Bryanne, web chap. 13, 2-6
• Gå ind på: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b og/handbook-language- detectives http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b og/handbook-language- detectives • Vælg kapitel 10 • Vælg Web activity 5
Integreret grammatikundervisning • I tekstlæsning • Fælles skrivning
A. When Mr and Mrs Dursley woke up on the dull, grey Tuesday our story starts, there was nothing about the cloudy sky outside to suggest that strange and mysterious things would soon be happening all over the country. Mr Dursley hummed as he picked out his most boring tie for work and Mrs Dursley gossiped away happily as she wrestled a screaming Dudley into his high chair. None of them noticed a large, tawny owl flutter past the window. B. When Mr and Mrs Dursley woke up on the Tuesday our story starts, there was nothing about the sky outside to suggest that things would soon be happening all over the country. Mr Dursley hummed as he picked out his tie for work and Mrs Dursley gossiped away happily as she wrestled Dudley into his chair. None of them noticed an owl flutter past the window Read the following two texts: Rowling, J. K.: Harry Potter and the Philosopher´s Stone, Bloomsbury, 1997, pp.7-8.
1.Which text enables you to picture and characterize situations, things and characters precisely and vividly? Explain which text you prefer and why. 2.Which words are missing in text B and which word class do they belong to? 3.Which words do they describe and which word class do they describe? 4.What can you now conclude regarding adjectives? 5.Can you think of other situations or genres in which you would use a lot of adjectives? 6.Discuss this exercise from a teacher´s perspective, e.g. can you use this exercise with pupils?
Teacher and students constructing jointly Students constructing independently Teacher modelling and deconstructing Setting the context The Teaching-Learning Cycle
Hvad er svært ved verbaltiderne? • FORM? • MEANING? • USE ?
Event Axis BEFORE AT THE TIME (point of reference) AFTERWARDS Present has sung (the present perfect) sings (the present) is going to/will sing (the simple future) Past had sung sang + Adverbial (the past perfect or the simple past + Adv.) sang (the past) sang/would sing (habit) (the simple past or the future of the past) Future will have sung (future perfect) will sing (the simple future) will sing (the simple future) Event Axis BEFORE AT THE TIME (point of reference) AFTERWARDS Present has sung (the present perfect) sings (the present) is going to/will sing (the simple future) Past had sung sang + Adverbial (the past perfect or the simple past + Adv.) sang (the past) sang/would sing (habit) (the simple past or the future of the past) Future will have sung (future perfect) will sing (the simple future) will sing (the simple future)
• Gå ind på: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b og/handbook-language- detectives http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b og/handbook-language- detectives • Vælg kapitel 7 • Vælg – Web activity 33 – Web activity 34
GRAMMAR GRAMMARING done known Grammar is something that is done, rather than something that is known. Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 20
Litteratur • Bruntt, Karen Lassen & Ulla Bryanne: Handbook for Language Detectives: Learning and Teaching English Grammar. Samfundsfag. 2012 • Øvelser hertil: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-language- detectives#tab2http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-language- detectives#tab2 • Celce-Muria, Marianne & Diane Larsen-Freeman: The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s Course. Heinle & Heinle. 1999 • Larsen-Freeman, Diane: Teaching Grammar: From Grammar to Grammaring. Thomson-Heinle. 2003