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Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Professor Willy Pedersen Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo Cannabis in Norway Trondheim nov.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Professor Willy Pedersen Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo Cannabis in Norway Trondheim nov."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Professor Willy Pedersen Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo Cannabis in Norway Trondheim nov 15, 2009

2 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO

3 Slottsparken 1967 ” It was the age of aquarius and that kind of things. It was not a regular revolution, but a revolution from within…. We were in favour of lighting up people. That was the way to change society. Smoke shit and get this revolution - from within….” Peter, now 61 years. Hanging out in Slottsparken from

4 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO All the time: cannabis, music, subculture,

5 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO A broader subcultural movement

6 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Cannabis subculture of the 1960’ies Survived at Goa, India

7 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Decriminalization

8 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Data sources •Young in Norway longitudinal •Population-based follow-up early teens - late 20’ •High response rates •Broad set of measures •Matched with Norwegian crime statistics •Matched with Norwegian Prescription Data Base •App 150 personal interviews •Ethnographic research at ”The River”

9 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Life time ever use of cannabis age (SIRUS)

10 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Life time ever cannabis use. Longitudinal population-based data, age span 15-28

11 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Prevalence rates in Oslo and USA, last 15 years

12 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Sociocultural opposition? •First study - from 1990 •Tests for three dimensions •A: Traditional engagement •B: Oppositional engagement •C: Psychosocial problems •Recreational use : opposition and traditional engagement •”Heavy” use: Opposition not traditional engagement •”Heavy use”: Psychosocial problems •(Pedersen 1990)

13 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Possible music preferences •Disco/pop •Soul/funk •Jazz/jazzrock •1960talls rock •Reggae •World music •Punk/ hardcore •New age, ”sveve” •House/ Techno •Hip-hop/ rap •Seattle/ grunsj •Heavy metal/ trash •Acid jazz •Indie-chart

14 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Sociocultural opposition? •Second study from 2009 •Tests for three dimensions •Traditional music •Experimental music •Subversive attitudes •Traditional music: Inverse relationship (OR 0.2) •Experimental music: Positive relationship (OR 2.2) •Subversive attitudes: Positive relationship (OR 2.2) •(Pedersen 2009)

15 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO The instant cannabis check (better than urine tests)

16 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Yesterday’s users, still relevant portrait Argot from the late 60’ies: stein, bønne, rev, fede, shit, skit, tjall … BA students UiO: App 50 concepts Rituals, symbols, language, structure of the distribution

17 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO But also conduct problems (CP 13 by can 15) Pedersen, Wichstrøm, Mastekaasa (2001)

18 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Gender, conduct problems and cannabis •Global CP scale strong predictor •Associations at subclinical levels •Three dimensions: covert, aggressive, serious •Covert problems predictor in females •Why? •Stigmatization? •CP disordered girls’, low menarche, ”dangerous romantic relations” •Possible sexual abuse, sexual victimization

19 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Increasing social marginality •In adolescence small associations to social class •A tendencey towards ”high cultural capital” •Negative associations to ”Se & Hør” •Positive to Morgenbladet, Klassekampen •With age an inceasingly social marginal group •Typical user age 30: Male, living in Oslo, school drop out, unemployed, poor mental health (Pedersen 2009)

20 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO And poor mental health •Previous studies (Lancet): Psychosis, cognitive functioning •Our data: •Strong association anxiety, depression and sucidal behaviours •Cannabis at age 21 predicts poor mental health at 28 •After control, significant association to suicidal behaviour •Cannabis users often have poor mental health, in the affective cluster. •Still, not proven causal effect (Pedersen 2008 b ) •Recent study (submitted): 2/3 of benzodiazepine prescriptions in age group to cannabis users (!)

21 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO And crime •Previous studies: interwowen in criminal career •But less important than alcohol and other illegal substances •Our data: •Highly significant predictor of drug-related crime •Not increased gain crime, violence •A surprisingly high proportion of cannabis users take part in distribution and are convicted (Legemiddelloven and § 162) •( Pedersen & Skardhamar, 2009)

22 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Cannabis economy: Key findings •Price has possibly a small influence on consumption •Profits has a large impact on corruption, crime, violence •Very large number of persons involved •Much money involved (more than cocaine and opiates) •Import from developing world is decreasing •Increasing domestic production in eg. Netherlands and UK •Violence, heavy crime? - Discussions

23 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Cannabis cultivation: From Morocco to Europe

24 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO

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26 The scene in Oslo •Still, primarily imported hash, much from Morocco •Public markets (Akerselva) •Private - most important. Part-time dealers, ”friends” •Behind: At least some heavy criminals, large money •(Sandberg & Pedersen, 2006, 2009)

27 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Typology •Hip-hop kids •Fallen gangsters •Refugees

28 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Dealing at The River App 50 boys, age 17-25, Sub-Saharan origin Almost all black 1.Complex ”street” competence 2.Learning crime 3.Developing marginalization 4.Cannabis kept the culture together

29 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Dealing at The River •Complex scene – clear structure •Connections, other dealers, undercover cops, customers, good and poor hash, prices, ”bøff” •”Double the money all the time”” •The myth; ”Big money” •A successful day: 1500 NOK •High competence – high dependency

30 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Welfare state and victim discourse Ali: Men noen ganger er det veldig vanskelig, ikke sant. Det er ikke mange som forstår akkurat når det gjelder å gå på Elva. Du er arbeidsledig, og du har ikke noe sted å få inntekt fra. Fordi du har ikke penger, og for hver ting du gjør i Norge, trenger du penger, ikke sant. Du skal ha mat, må ha penger. Husleie, du må ha penger. Det er ikke alle som står der som egentlig vil stå der, ikke sant. Men det er siste utvei, fordi de gutta som står der de mener at det er bedre å stå der enn å gjøre ran, ikke sant.

31 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Gangster discourse Intervjuer: Har du vært på treningssenter for å lære å slåss? Chris: Nei nei, jeg hadde på noe jævla treningsstudio i hele livet mitt jeg assa, allah.. Jeg har bare vært ute på gata jeg. Intervjuer: The hard way, asså (ler) Chris: Jeg har lært av filmer hvordan du kan slå i hjel et menneske, man. Sånn som det glasset her (holder opp glasset). Du knuser det i trynet på motherfuckeren. ”hva i helvete a’” (lang pause) Intervjuer: Men du har banka noen? Chris: Ja, jeg tok et balltre og slo i hjel en kar en gang. Men han var en djevel ass. Petter, han var en satans unge. Jeg kødder ikke

32 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO A cannabis paradox •At The River – poor quality, high price •Instrumental transactions, no involvement •The private dealers provide better cannabis •They are ”friends”, ”cool”, ”hip” •You should take your time, smoke a joint •A complex sociocultural dependency may develope •Therefore – to avoid this, some seek out The River

33 Prof. Willy Pedersen. ISS, UiO Conclusions •Our most important illegal substance •High levels of use in young adult groups •Lack of knowledge about intensive use patterns •Underresearched pattern of subculture •Also marginality and poor mental health •An enormous black economy •Actors within this economy with different ideologies •Thus: Important field for policy-making


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