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Pemrograman Web Object Oriented Programming in PHP 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Pemrograman Web Object Oriented Programming in PHP 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pemrograman Web Object Oriented Programming in PHP 5

2 What is a function?  Conceptually, what does a function represent? …give the function something (arguments), it does something with them, and then returns a result… Action or Method

3 What is a class?  Conceptually, a class represents an object, with associated methods and variables

4 Class Definition Example

5 Class Defintion  Similar to defining a function..  The definition does not do anything by itself. It is a blueprint, or description, of an object. To do something, you need to use the class…

6 Class Usage nama = 'Susan'; echo $susan->nama. ' jika menyapa, berkata: '. $susan->menyapa(); ?>

7 Using attributes within the class..  If you need to use the class variables within any class actions/methods, use the special variable $this in the definition: class manusia { public $nama; public function menyapa() { echo $this->nama. ' bilang Halo!'; } } $susan = new manusia; $susan->nama = 'Susan'; $susan->menyapa();

8 Constructor methods  A constructor method is a function that is automatically executed when the class is first instantiated.  Create a constructor by including a function within the class definition with the __construct name.  Remember.. if the constructor requires arguments, they must be passed when it is instantiated!

9 Constructor Example nama = $nama; } public function menyapa() { echo $this->nama. ' bilang Halo!'; } } ?>

10 Constructor Example menyapa(); … ?> Output: Susan bilang Halo!

11 Class Scope  Like functions, each instantiated object has its own local scope. nama; // Adi $mahasiswa->nama = "Budi"; echo $mahasiswi->nama; // Susan; ?>

12 Inheritance  The real power of using classes is the property of inheritance – creating a hierarchy of interlinked classes. manusia mahasiswadosen parent children

13 Inheritance  The child classes 'inherit' all the methods and variables of the parent class, and can add extra ones of their own.  e.g. the child classes mahasiswa inherits the variable nama and method menyapa from the manusia class, and can add extra ones…

14 Inheritance example nama = $nama; } public $tugas = 'belajar'; } $susan = new mahasiswa('Susan'); echo $susan->menyapa(). ' ketika sedang '. $susan->tugas; Output: Susan bilang Halo! ketika sedang belajar

15 Method Override  Mahasiswa selalu berkata 'Hei!' ketika menyapa. nama. ' bilang Hei!'; } $susan = new mahasiswa('Susan'); echo $susan->menyapa(); Output: Susan bilang Hei! ketika sedang belajar

16 Child Constructors?  If the child class possesses a constructor function, it is executed and any parent constructor is ignored.  If the child class does not have a constructor, the parent's constructor is executed.  If the child and parent does not have a constructor, the grandparent constructor is attempted…  … etc.

17 Class Visibility  Visibility  The visibility of a property or method can be defined by prefixing the declaration with the keywords public, protected or private. Class members declared public can be accessed everywhere. Members declared protected can be accessed only within the class itself and by inherited and parent classes. Members declared as private may only be accessed by the class that defines the member.  Property Visibility  Class properties must be defined as public, private, or protected. If declared using var, the property will be defined as public.

18 Visibility Example class MyClass { public $public = 'Public'; protected $protected = 'Protected'; private $private = 'Private'; function printHello() { echo $this->public; echo $this->protected; echo $this->private; } $obj = new MyClass(); echo $obj->public; // Works echo $obj->protected; // Fatal Error echo $obj->private; // Fatal Error $obj->printHello(); // Shows Public, Protected and Private class MyClass2 extends MyClass { protected $protected = 'Protected2'; function printHello() { echo $this->public; echo $this->protected; echo $this->private; } $obj2 = new MyClass2(); echo $obj2->public; // Works echo $obj2->private; // Undefined echo $obj2->protected; // Fatal Error // Shows Public, Protected2, Undefined $obj2->printHello();

19 Objects within Objects  It is perfectly possible to include objects within another object nama = $nama; }

20 Objects within objects example baju = new pakaian; echo $susan->nama. ' memakai baju warna '. $susan->baju->warna; ?> Output: Susan memakai baju warna merah

21 Encapsulation  Encapsulation is a way of storing an object or data as a property within another object, so that the outer object has full control over what how the internal data or object can be accessed.  This, in combination with making the inner object/property private, enables information hiding.information hiding.

22 Encapsulation Example baju = new pakaian; $this->baju->warna = 'biru'; } public function warnaBaju() { return $this->baju->warna; } $susan = new manusia(); echo 'Susan memakai baju berwarna '. $susan->warnaBaju(); Output: Susan memakai baju berwarna biru

23 Abstract Class  It's a kind "father" that must be inherited to be used. Classes that inherit differ from them only in the abstract methods and can access the methods of the parent class using the keyword parent.  Features:  can not be instantiated  methods can be abstract (not implemented)  methods may be not abstract (implemented)  a class can inherit from a single abstract class

24 Abstract Class abstract class Binatang { abstract protected function bicara(); // Common method (shared) public function garukGaruk() { echo "garuk garuk…"; }

25 Extending Abstract Class class Kucing extends Binatang { public function bicara() { echo "Meong…" } $anggora = new Binatang; // E $anggora = new Kucing; $anggora->bicara(); // meong… $anggora->garukGaruk(); // garuk garuk… class Anjing extends Binatang { public function bicara() { echo "Guk…" } $herder = new Binatang; // E $herder = new Anjing; $herder->bicara(); // Guk… $herder->garukGaruk(); // garuk garuk…

26 Interface  The clearest definition is that an interface is a contract.  Features:  All classes that implement an interface must develop all the methods that have been defined  The class implementing the interface must use the exact same method signatures as are defined in the interface. Not doing so will result in a fatal error  All methods declared in an interface must be public, this is the nature of an interface  A class can implement more than one interface  An interface can be used by the Type HintingType Hinting

27 Polymorphism  Polymorphism is the ability (in programming) to present the same interface for differing underlying forms (data types).

28 Polymorphism Example

29 Polymorphism Example bicara(); // Meong... $hewan = new anjing; $hewan->bicara(); // Guk... Guk... ?>

30 Latihan  Buatlah sebuah interface kendaraan yang memiliki: method:  bukaPintu();  jumlahRoda();  Buatlah kelas mobil dan bus yang mengimplementasikan interface kendaraan tersebut.  Mobil dan bus memiliki atribut $roda dan $pintu;  Nilai atribut $roda mobil = 4; bus = 6;  Nilai atribut $pintu mobil = 5; bus = 3;  Perlihatkan polymorphism pada kelas mobil dan bus tersebut di atas untuk method bukaPintu() dan jumlahRoda()!

31 Final Keyword  PHP introduces "Final" keyword to prevent sub-class method overriding.  "Final" keyword can be implemented on properties, methods and classes  Final class means it cannot be inherited

32 Deleting objects  So far our objects have not been destroyed till the end of our scripts..  Like variables, it is possible to explicitly destroy an object using the unset() function.

33 A copy, or not a copy..  Entire objects can be passed as arguments to functions, and can use all methods/variables within the function.  Remember however.. like functions the object is COPIED when passed as an argument unless you specify the argument as a reference variable &$variable


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