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El modo imperativo Los mandatos The imperative mood Commands.

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1 El modo imperativo Los mandatos The imperative mood Commands

2 Spanish has three moods, that is, three ways of talking: the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive. The indicative mood is used to express the way things are; you use the present, past, and future tenses with this mood. The subjunctive mood is used to express a possibility or opinion; something that isnt necessarily true but could be. The imperative mood is used to express requests and commands.

3 You have learned the indicative mood and later on youll learn the subjunctive. Now well concentrate on the imperative mood. Whenever you want somebody to do something for you, you will have to use the imperative mood. We use two ways of speaking in Spanish: –the formal speech to show respect or to be polite. –the informal speech when we are familiar with the people we are talking with or when they are the same age or younger than us. Because of the formal and informal speech in Spanish, whenever you have to give a command youll have to choose between the formal (polite) or informal (familiar) commands.

4 Formal commands are formed by: 1) conjugating the verb with yo in the present tense. 2) then drop the –o ending. 3) add the following endings: for –ar verbs add –e for ud. and –en for uds. for –er and –ir verbs add –a for ud. and –an for uds. Ex: You (formal/singular) speak! 1) First, conjugate hablar with yo = hablo 2) Second, drop the –o. hablo = habl 3) Third, for –ar verbs add –e = hable Translation = (Usted) ¡hable!

5 Ejercicios Translate the following formal commands: 1. You walk._____________________________ 2. You (pl) walk.__________________________ 3. You eat.______________________________ 4. You (pl) eat.___________________________ 5. You mix.______________________________ 6. You (pl) mix.___________________________ 7. You taste._____________________________ 8. You (pl) taste._________________________ 9. You add._____________________________

6 The following verbs are irregular: Verb Ud.(f/s)Uds.(f/p) dar (to give) déden ir (to go) vayavayan ser (to be) seasean estar (to be) estéestén saber (to know) sepasepan To make a formal command negative just add no in front of the command. Abra la puerta. No abra la puerta. Cierre la ventana. No cierre la ventana.

7 Verbs ending in –car, -gar, and –zar Verbs ending in –car, -gar, and –zar have a spelling change in formal commands. UstedUstedes Buscar ----busquebusquen Pagar paguepaguen Empezar ---empieceempiecen

8 Ejercicios 1.Tocar _________________ 2.Tocar (pl)_______________ 3.Jugar__________________ 4.Jugar (pl)_______________ 5.Practicar________________ 6.Practicar (pl)_____________ 7.Almorzar________________ 8.Almorzar (pl)_____________

9 Go verbs To make commands with –go verbs you follow the same rule: 1. conjugate with yo. 2. drop the o 3. add a for –er/ir (-go verbs are only –er and –ir) Tener tengo tengtenga

10 Write the commands for the following –go verbs Go verbs UstedUstedes Tener Venir Salir Decir(e>i) Hacer Poner Traer (irr.)

11 Commands with object pronouns In Spanish, the placement of pronouns depends on whether a command is affirmative or negative. In affirmative commands, you attach the object pronouns to the end of the verb. Compre la comida. object pronoun Cómprela Notice that there is an accent on the o. You will need to add an accent on commands with three or more syllables.

12 Ejercicios Form a new word by attaching the object pronouns to the formal commands. 1. Preparare la cena.__________________ 2. Hierva el aceite.____________________ 3. Pruebe el postre.___________________ 4. Corte las cebollas.__________________ 5. Bata los huevos.____________________ 6. Fria las patatas.____________________ 7. Lea la receta.______________________

13 In negative commands, you place object pronouns before the verb and after no. No compre la comida. object pronoun No la compre. No vendan la ropa.No añada el ajo. No la vendan.No lo añada.

14 Ejercicios Make commands with object pronouns. Hervir/zanahorias. Hiérvalas. No hervir/zanahorias. No las hierva. 1.Freír/verduras._____________________ 2.No mezclar/huevos._________________ 3.Cortar/ajos.________________________ 4.No comer/comida.__________________ 5.Batir/ingredientes.__________________ 6.Pagar/desayuno.___________________

15 Make plural commands with object pronouns. Hervir/frijoles. Hiérvanlos. No hervir/zanahorias. No las hiervan. 1.Mezclar/ingredientes.________________ 2.No preparar/cena.__________________ 3.Batir/huevos..______________________ 4.No beber/bebidas.__________________ 5.Cortar/pollos.______________________ 6.Añadir/verduras.___________________

16 The informal / singular commands are formed by conjugating the verb with the pronoun usted in the present (indicative) tense. Ex: You (inf.) speak ¡Tú habla! Just conjugate speak / hablar with usted =habla Ejercicios. Translate the following informal commands: 1. You (inf) work._________________________ 2. You (inf) wash._________________________ 3. You (inf) write.__________________________ 4. You (inf) study._________________________ 5. You (inf) sweep.________________________

17 To make informal commands negative: 1) First conjugate the verb into tú. 2) Invert the conjugation endings. For –ar verbs add –es, and for –er and –ir verbs add –as. 3) Add no infront of the new command. Ex: Dont read. Conjugate to read (leer) with tú lees. Change lees to –as leas. Add no infront of the commandNo leas. Dont drink. TomartomastomesNo tomes.

18 Ejercicios. Translate the following informal / singular commands. 1. You (inf/s) dance._______________________ 2. You (inf/s) dont dance.___________________ 3. You (inf/s) jump.________________________ 4. You (inf/s) dont jump.____________________ 5. You (inf/s) sing._________________________ 6. You (inf/s) dont sing.____________________ 7. You (inf/s) run._________________________ 8. You (inf/s) dont run._____________________ 9. You (inf/s) dont sleep (o>ue).______________

19 Irregular informal commands. The following verbs are irregular in the informal/ singular command conjugations. Verbo Mandato afirmativo Mandato negativo Decir (to say)DiNo digas Hacer (to do)HazNo hagas Ir(to go)VeNo vayas Poner (to put)PonNo pongas Salir (to leave)SalNo salgas Ser (to be)SéNo seas tener (to have)TenNo tengas Venir (to come)VenNo vengas

20 A good way to remember… Here is a sentence that will help you remember the eight irregular tú commands: Vin Diesel has ten weapons, eh! ven di sal haz ten ve pon sé come say do go be leave have put venir decir salir hacer tener ir poner ser

21 Another way to remember… To the beat of Row, row, row your boat you can sing the following: Haz, sal, ve y ven di, ten, sé y pon ocho mandatos afirmativos irregulares son

22 The nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included. These commands are translated as lets…(+ verb). To form these commands youll have to conjugate the verb with nosotros and invert the ending. For –ar verbs use the ending –emos and for –er and –ir verbs use the ending –amos. Ex: Lets walk (caminar) Conjugate caminar with nosotros caminamos. Change caminamos to –emos caminemos. Lets write (escribir) escribimos add –amos escribamos.

23 To make negative commands with nosotros place no infront of the command. Ex: Lets not clean here. Limpiar limpiamoslimpiemos No limpiemos No limpiemos aquí. Lets not play. Jugarjugamosjuguemos No juguemos. Lets not write. escribirescribimos escribamosNo escribamos

24 With the verb Ir (se) you will have to use vayamos for negative commands with nosotros. Lets go to the movie theater. Vamos al cine. Lets not go to the movie theater. No vayamos al cine. Lets not go to the house now. No vayamos a la casa ahora.

25 Ejercicios. Traduce lo siguiente: 1. Lets study tonight._____________esta noche. 2. Lets not study tonight.__________esta noche. 3. Lets buy candy._______________dulces. 4. Lets not buy candy.______________dulces. 5. Lets go to the party.____________________. 6. Lets not go to the party._________________. 7. Lets talk on the phone.__________ por teléfono. 8. Lets not talk on the phone.___________por teléfono. 9. Lets go to the school.___________________. 10. Lets not go to the school.________________

26 Object pronouns with commands You can attach object pronouns directly to the end of the verb only to affirmative commands. Ex: You (formal) wash the car. Wash it. (DO) Lave el carro. Lávelo. You (formal) buy the fruits. Buy them.(DO) Compre las frutas.Cómprelas. You (formal) sell the flower.Sell it (DO) Venda la flor.Véndala.

27 If both the direct object pronoun (DO) and the indirect object pronoun (IOP) are attached, the IOP comes before the DO. Ex: You (formal) buy it.(DO) Cómprelo. (DO) (DO) (IOP) You (f) buy it for me. Cómpremelo. (IOP) (DO) Place the IOP right infront of the DO In order to maintain the original pronunciation of the verb, a written accent is often needed.

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