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El modo imperativo Los mandatos

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1 El modo imperativo Los mandatos
The imperative mood Commands

2 Spanish has three moods, that is, three ways of talking: the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive. The indicative mood is used to express the way things are; you use the present, past, and future tenses with this mood. The subjunctive mood is used to express a possibility or opinion; something that isn’t necessarily true but could be. The imperative mood is used to express requests and commands.

3 We use two ways of speaking in Spanish:
You have learned the indicative mood and later on you’ll learn the subjunctive. Now we’ll concentrate on the imperative mood. Whenever you want somebody to do something for you, you will have to use the imperative mood. We use two ways of speaking in Spanish: the formal speech to show respect or to be polite. the informal speech when we are familiar with the people we are talking with or when they are the same age or younger than us. Because of the formal and informal speech in Spanish, whenever you have to give a command you’ll have to choose between the formal (polite) or informal (familiar) commands.

4 Formal commands are formed by:
1) conjugating the verb with yo in the present tense. 2) then drop the –o ending. 3) add the following endings: for –ar verbs add –e for ud. and –en for uds. for –er and –ir verbs add –a for ud. and –an for uds. Ex: You (formal/singular) speak! 1) First, conjugate hablar with yo = hablo 2) Second, drop the –o. hablo = habl 3) Third, for –ar verbs add –e = hable Translation = (Usted) ¡hable!

5 Ejercicios Translate the following formal commands:
1. You walk._____________________________ 2. You (pl) walk.__________________________ 3. You eat.______________________________ 4. You (pl) eat.___________________________ 5. You mix.______________________________ 6. You (pl) mix.___________________________ 7. You taste._____________________________ 8. You (pl) taste._________________________ 9. You add._____________________________

6 The following verbs are irregular:
Verb Ud.(f/s) Uds.(f/p) dar (to give) dé den ir (to go) vaya vayan ser (to be) sea sean estar (to be) esté estén saber (to know) sepa sepan To make a formal command negative just add no in front of the command. Abra la puerta. → No abra la puerta. Cierre la ventana. → No cierre la ventana.

7 Verbs ending in –car, -gar, and –zar
Verbs ending in –car, -gar, and –zar have a spelling change in formal commands. Usted Ustedes Buscar busque busquen Pagar pague paguen Empezar --- empiece empiecen

8 Ejercicios Tocar _________________ Tocar (pl)_______________
Jugar__________________ Jugar (pl)_______________ Practicar________________ Practicar (pl)_____________ Almorzar________________ Almorzar (pl)_____________

9 Go verbs To make commands with –go verbs you follow the same rule:
1. conjugate with yo. 2. drop the o 3. add a for –er/ir (-go verbs are only –er and –ir) Tener tengo teng tenga

10 Write the commands for the following –go verbs
Go verbs Usted Ustedes Tener Venir Salir Decir(e>i) Hacer Poner Traer (irr.)

11 Commands with object pronouns
In Spanish, the placement of pronouns depends on whether a command is affirmative or negative. In affirmative commands, you attach the object pronouns to the end of the verb. Compre la comida object pronoun Cómprela Notice that there is an accent on the o. You will need to add an accent on commands with three or more syllables.

12 Ejercicios Form a new word by attaching the object pronouns to the formal commands. 1. Preparare la cena.__________________ 2. Hierva el aceite.____________________ 3. Pruebe el postre.___________________ 4. Corte las cebollas.__________________ 5. Bata los huevos.____________________ 6. Fria las patatas.____________________ 7. Lea la receta.______________________

13 In negative commands, you place object pronouns before the verb and after no.
No compre la comida object pronoun No la compre. No vendan la ropa. No añada el ajo. No la vendan. No lo añada.

14 Ejercicios Make commands with object pronouns.
Hervir/zanahorias. Hiérvalas. No hervir/zanahorias. No las hierva. Freír/verduras._____________________ No mezclar/huevos._________________ Cortar/ajos.________________________ No comer/comida.__________________ Batir/ingredientes.__________________ Pagar/desayuno.___________________

15 Make plural commands with object pronouns.
Hervir/frijoles. Hiérvanlos. No hervir/zanahorias. No las hiervan. Mezclar/ingredientes.________________ No preparar/cena.__________________ Batir/huevos..______________________ No beber/bebidas.__________________ Cortar/pollos.______________________ Añadir/verduras.___________________

16 The informal / singular commands are formed by conjugating the verb with the pronoun usted in the present (indicative) tense. Ex: You (inf.) speak ¡Tú habla! Just conjugate speak / hablar with usted =habla Ejercicios. Translate the following informal commands: 1. You (inf) work._________________________ 2. You (inf) wash._________________________ 3. You (inf) write.__________________________ 4. You (inf) study._________________________ 5. You (inf) sweep.________________________

17 To make informal commands negative:
1) First conjugate the verb into tú. 2) Invert the conjugation endings. For –ar verbs add –es, and for –er and –ir verbs add –as. 3) Add no infront of the new command. Ex: Don’t read. Conjugate to read (leer) with tú→ lees. Change lees to –as → leas. Add no infront of the command→No leas. Don’t drink. Tomar→tomas→tomes→No tomes.

18 Ejercicios. Translate the following informal / singular commands.
1. You (inf/s) dance._______________________ 2. You (inf/s) don’t dance.___________________ 3. You (inf/s) jump.________________________ 4. You (inf/s) don’t jump.____________________ 5. You (inf/s) sing._________________________ 6. You (inf/s) don’t sing.____________________ 7. You (inf/s) run._________________________ 8. You (inf/s) don’t run._____________________ 9. You (inf/s) don’t sleep (o>ue).______________

19 Irregular informal commands.
The following verbs are irregular in the informal/ singular command conjugations. Verbo Mandato afirmativo Mandato negativo Decir (to say) Di No digas Hacer (to do) Haz No hagas Ir (to go) Ve No vayas Poner (to put) Pon No pongas Salir (to leave) Sal No salgas Ser (to be) Sé No seas tener (to have) Ten No tengas Venir (to come) Ven No vengas

20 A good way to remember… Here is a sentence that will help you remember the eight irregular tú commands: “Vin Diesel has ten weapons, eh!” ven di sal haz ten ve pon sé come say do go be leave have put venir decir salir hacer tener ir poner ser

21 Another way to remember…
To the beat of Row, row, row your boat you can sing the following: Haz, sal, ve y ven di, ten, sé y pon ocho mandatos afirmativos irregulares son

22 The nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included
The nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included. These commands are translated as let’s…(+ verb). To form these commands you’ll have to conjugate the verb with nosotros and invert the ending. For –ar verbs use the ending –emos and for –er and –ir verbs use the ending –amos. Ex: Let’s walk (caminar) Conjugate caminar with nosotros→ caminamos. Change caminamos to –emos → caminemos. Let’s write (escribir) escribimos→ add –amos → escribamos.

23 To make negative commands with nosotros place no infront of the command.
Ex: Let’s not clean here. Limpiar→ limpiamos→limpiemos→ No limpiemos No limpiemos aquí. Let’s not play. Jugar→jugamos→juguemos→ No juguemos. Let’s not write. escribir→escribimos→escribamos→No escribamos

24 With the verb Ir (se) you will have to use “vayamos” for negative commands with nosotros.
Let’s go to the movie theater. Vamos al cine. Let’s not go to the movie theater. No vayamos al cine. Let’s not go to the house now. No vayamos a la casa ahora.

25 Ejercicios. Traduce lo siguiente:
1. Let’s study tonight._____________esta noche. 2. Let’s not study tonight.__________esta noche. 3. Let’s buy candy._______________dulces. 4. Let’s not buy candy.______________dulces. 5. Let’s go to the party.____________________. 6. Let’s not go to the party._________________. 7. Let’s talk on the phone.__________por teléfono. 8. Let’s not talk on the phone.___________por teléfono. 9. Let’s go to the school.___________________. 10. Let’s not go to the school.________________

26 Object pronouns with commands
You can attach object pronouns directly to the end of the verb only to affirmative commands. Ex: You (formal) wash the car. Wash it. (DO) Lave el carro Lávelo. You (formal) buy the fruits Buy them.(DO) Compre las frutas. Cómprelas. You (formal) sell the flower. Sell it (DO) Venda la flor. Véndala.

27 Ex: You (formal) buy it.(DO) → Cómprelo.(DO) (DO) (IOP)
If both the direct object pronoun (DO) and the indirect object pronoun (IOP) are attached, the IOP comes before the DO. Ex: You (formal) buy it.(DO) → Cómprelo.(DO) (DO) (IOP) You (f) buy it for me. → Cómpremelo. (IOP) (DO) Place the IOP right infront of the DO In order to maintain the original pronunciation of the verb, a written accent is often needed.

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