Presentation on theme: "PREPOSITIONS Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Or Preposition."— Presentation transcript:
1 PREPOSITIONSDefinition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence.OrPreposition is a word that creates a relationship between other words.It's been said that prepositions often deal with space and time.
2 Most often they come before nouns, pronouns, gerunds and noun clauses.They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.
3 Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.
4 There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary,reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases of by heart.
6 Preposition Use in/at/on (Prepositions of place) - IN – *Use 'in' with spaces:in a room / in a building in a garden / in a park*Use 'in' with bodies of water:in the water in the sea in a river*Use 'in' with lines:in a row / in a line in a queue
7 I work best in the morning I work best in the morning. I'll work again in the evening if I have to, but I prefer to relax in the afternoon.(But we say at the weekend, at Christmas, at Easter and at night.)
8 There is a subtle difference between the expressions in time (which means before a given time) and on time (which means exactly at that time):The 7.53 is always on time, but yesterday it was late.I couldn't get there in time for the beginning of Jo's concert and missed the opening number.
9 We also use IN to describe how much time will pass before something happens or to talk about how long something took or takes. Consider the following:'Do you mind waiting? I shall be ready in about ten minutes.'
10 'If you order it now, you'll receive it in about two weeks' time.' 'I can run one hundred metres in 12.5 seconds!'
11 AT *Use 'at' with places: at the bus-stop at the door at the cinema at the end of the street *Use 'at' with places on a page: at the top of the page at the bottom of the page *Use 'at' in groups of people: at the back of the class at the front of the class
12 We use AT to SPECIFY POSITION at a point: He failed to stop AT the traffic lights and went through the light ON red.I was waiting for AT least half an hour AT the station, but no train came.I never seem to have any money AT the end of the month.-You shouldn't worry about that- I never have any AT the beginning of the month.
13 You can not be IN your computer. You are AT your computer.You can not be IN your computer.You are IN your room IN your house (and AT your house also).Also, if we're using the name of a building we tend to use ‘AT'.We're doing this recording AT Bush House in London.
14 So we can say 'I have a cousin who works AT the Pentagon. We also use ‘AT' where people work or study when the name of the place is given.So we can say 'I have a cousin who works AT the Pentagon.My daughter is studying AT the Institute of Education‘
15 We also use ‘AT' for group activities. So we could say 'I was AT a concert, a party, a football match. The idea we have with ‘IN' is of a position inside an area or inside a three-dimensional space.So we would say ‘IN the kitchen, IN the woods,IN Malta'.
17 ON *Use 'on' with surfaces: on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor on the table *Use 'on' with small islands: I stayed on Maui. *Use 'on' with directions: on the left on the right straight on
18 In / at / on the corner We say ‘ IN THE CORNER of a room‘ , butAT THE CORNER (or ‘ON THE CORNER') of a street'
19 ON SALE OR FOR SALE ?ON SALE : İNDİRİMDEFOR SALE : SATILIK
20 In / at / on the front We say 'in the front / in the back' of a car We say 'at the front / at the back' of buildings / groups of people We say 'on the front / on the back' of a piece of paper
21 ON and IN for place:WE USE IN to specify position inside larger areas such as containers, rooms, towns, countries, etc.WE USE to specify position ON a line or country Compare the following:I live IN Cizre.Is that IN BATMAN?No, it's IN ŞIRNAK
22 Have you seen my yellow T-shirt? Yes, it's IN the wardrobe.Where abouts IN the wardrobe?It's ON the fourth shelf AT the front.Did you find it?Yes, it was ON the bottom shelf AT the back. They have lots of family photographs ON the walls ON the landing, but no curtains AT any of the windows.I'll meet you AT the theatre.Where exactly?In the foyer AT 7.15.
23 If we want to use very formal grammar we say On what day is your birthday?You know we say this because the answer, which should beIt is on Tuesday, includes the preposition ‘on’.However, this is an example of a grammar rule that is not very strict, because, in everyday English, in less formal situations, most people say:What day is your birthday?
24 You will also hear:What day is your birthday on? Again,this is a less formal style, but it is commonly used.To finish,it is very common to use ‘when’ rather than ‘what’.When is the Christmas party?instead ofOn what day is the Christmas party?
25 IN / AT / TOPrepositions of Place and Movement,At, on and in are the main prepositions in English indicating position.Generally speaking:IN is used to specify position inside larger areas;ON is used to specify position on a line.AT is used to specify position in a larger place.
26 Compare the following: 'They were walking on the beach.''They were playing in the sand.''They were lying on the warm sand, reading their books.'In the first example, we imagine people at a certain point on their walk along the beach.
27 In the second example a group of children surrounded by sand and having fun in the sand, And in the third example, older children or adults lying on top of the sand, so on is most appropriate here.
28 Use of an appropriate preposition sometimes depends on how we think about it. When we say people walking in the sand,one imagines soft sand, which their feet sometimes disappear into;But if we say on the sand,we would imagine it as hard sand which their feet do not sink into.Both on and in are therefore possible alternatives in this example.
29 We read about things in a newspaper. To find what we are looking for, we usually have to open the newspaper and look inside. Therefore in is the most appropriate preposition.Compare the following:'I saw it ON BBC World, heard about it ON the BBC World Service and then read about it IN the Times
30 'There were crowds of people ON the streets.' 'IN the street where I live there are speed bumps every fifty yards.'In the first example, we imagine someone surveying the crowds from a distance.In the second example the perspective is from inside the street
31 DETAILSWith the verb 'visit'She visited France last summer.With verbs of movement and the noun 'home‘He went home.They drove home.
32 Most verbs expressing direction require the preposition TO before the noun, but not home. Compare the following:I made my way to the mosque before sunrise.I ran all the way to the theatre so that I wouldn't be late.I'm going to walk to work from now on. It's healthier.I arrived at the harbour just as the boat was leaving.
33 Once you arrive home, you are then AT HOME and no more direction is suggested, so at is then the appropriate preposition to use with home:Will you be AT HOME tonight or are you going out?No, I'll be at home.However, even here, at is often omitted, especially in American English.
34 For /While / DuringFOR Use 'for' with a period of time to express the duration or 'how long' something has happened: for three weeks for many yearsWHILE Use 'while' plus a verb form: while I was watching TV while I lived in New YorkDURINGUse 'during' with a noun to express 'when' something happens: during class during my vacation during the discussion
35 In / At / OnPrepositions of time and Date IN Use 'in' months and years and periods of time: in January in in the twenties Use 'in' a period of time in the future: in a few weeks in a couple of days AT Use 'at' with precise time: at six o'clock at at two p.m. ON Use 'on' with days of the week: on Monday on Fridays Use 'on' with specific calendar days: on Christmas day on October 22nd
36 Zero preposition with time phrases : At/in/on are not normally used with time phrases starting with next, last, this, that, every, some, all. Consider the following:'Last year I made a cake for Jenny's birthday, but this year I'm going to buy one.‘'Are you free this morning? If not, I'll see you next week.''I'm at home all day tomorrow, so come round (at) any time
37 OTHER COMMON PREPOSITIONS about above according to across after against along along with among apart from around as as for at
38 because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but* by by means ofconcerning despite down during except except for excepting
39 for from in in addition to in back of in case of in front of in place of inside in spite of instead of into like near next of off on onto on top of out out of outside over
40 past regarding round since through throughout till to toward under underneath unlike until up upon up to with within without
42 EASY PREPOSITIONSIn: içinde (sabit durumda ve dışında olmayan) At: ...de, ...da Into: içinde (hareket olduğunda) On: üzerinde (statik olarak) Onto: üzerinde (dinamik olarak) Under: altında Up: yukarıya, yukarıda Down: aşağıya, aşağıda After: ...den sonra Before: ...den önce With: ile Without: ...sız Of: ...nın (telafuzu hafif bir “v” sesi iledir) Off: haricinde, dışında (tek başına kullanılmaz, değimselleşmiş kalıplarda. “of” olarak telafuz edilir.)
43 By: ile, tarafından,. e kadar Near:. nın yakınında,. e yakın Next to: By: ile, tarafından, ...e kadar Near: ...nın yakınında, ...e yakın Next to: ...nın yanına, bitişiğinde Like: gibi Unlike: aksine As: olarak From: ...den, ...dan, (somut olarak) Out of: ...den, ...dan (soyut olarak) Beyond: ötesinde Behind: arkasında Beneath: (yerin) altında Beside: ...den başka, ...nın yanında Over: üstünde (temas olmadan) “over” bir önek olarak kullanılrsa sonrasındaki kelimeye “aşırı, fazla” anlamını katar. Bu kullanımda artık edat değildir.
44 2.) COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS İn spite of: ...e rağmen Despite: Due to Owing to On account to: ...den dolayı Becouse to İn view ofPAY ATTENTION !!!WE CAN SEE THIS GROUP OF PREPOSITIONS IN KPDS Regarding Concerning As regards: ...e ilşkin With regard to About İn case: ...durumunda İn the event of İn terms of: itibariyle, bakımından With respect to: ...e göre (kıyaslamada) According to: ...e göre (görüş belirtirken) İn addition to: ...e ilaveten İnstead of ...nın yerine, ...cek yerde İn place of
45 Rather than:. den ziyade Apart from:. den başka Prior to Rather than: ...den ziyade Apart from: ...den başka Prior to ...den önce Before Unlıke İn contrast to ...nın aksine Different fromAs well as: hem hem, yanısıraİn relation to ...e oranla İn proportion toFor my part: bana göre By way of: yoluyla By means of: vasıtasıyla Except = except of:...hariç, ...dışında From the point of view of İn terms of bakımından With regard to For my part bana göre As far as I am concerned As well as İn addition to ayrıca, yanısıra Besides Appart from
47 THERE ARE ALSO OTHER COMMON PREPOSITIONS above at by into toward about before down like through across behind during near under after below except of until against beneath for off up along beside from on upon among between in since with around beyond inside to within
48 About1. Hakkında: A book about chemistry.2. Yaklaşık olarak: The Car is about ten million Usd.Above1. Üzerinde: A tiny window above the door. Across1. Bir uçtan diğer uca: Drew the curtain across the window.2. Karşı taraf: There is a Market across the village.After1. Sonra (zaman): after 6 o'clock; after breakfast.2. Sonra (dizi): B comes after A in the alphabet.3. Ardından: The wolf run after the cat.
49 Against1. Karşı: Theft is against the law.2. Yaslanmak (destek): Vines trained against the wall.Along1. Boyunca: He walked along the street.Among1. Arasında (İkiden fazla şeyin): The valley nestled among high mountains.Around1. Çevresinde: We ran around the buildings.2. çevreleyen: There is a fence around the garden.3. Çeşitli yerler: I looked around the house for the keys. 4. Geriye: We turned around and went back home. 5. Yaklaşık olarak: He is around six km tall.
50 At1. de, da (Yer): at the park (Parkta) 2. an (zaman): at 6 o'clock; at Christmas 3. an (durum): at peace; at war; at rest 4. etkinlik: at work; at home; at play 5. e doğru: Look at someone; wave at someone.Before1. Önce (zaman): before four o'clock; before Christmas 2. Önce (dizi): Y comes before Z in the alphabet.Behind1. At the back of: The little girl hid behind her mother. 2. Late: I am behind in my work. 3. Cause; origin: Who was behind that idea?Below1. Altında: below freezing; below sea level 2. Altında (sonra): Footnotes are provided below the text.
51 Beneath1. Altında: beneath the earthBeside1. Yanında, bitişiğinde (fiziksel): I sit beside her in class.Besides1. Ek olarak, -de, -da: We study other languages besides English.Between1. Arasında (konum): Toronto lies between Montreal and Vancouver. 2. Arasında (zaman): between Christmas and New Year's Day 3. Arasında (dizi): B comes between A and C in the alphabet. 4. Arasında (miktar): between five and ten people 5. Arasında (içinde): I was between two people.
52 1. den başka: I have read all but the last chapter. By Beyond1. Ötesinde: The mountains lie beyond the horizon. 2. Ötesinde (fazlalık): That was beyond my expectations.But1. den başka: I have read all but the last chapter.By1. Yakınında: a house by the sea 2. Yanından: He waved as he drove by the house. 3. Not later than: Try to finish the work by next week. 4. birden çok birim: cheaper by the dozen; sold by weight 5. vasıtasıyla: travel by plane; written by him
53 Concerning1. ilgili: He learnt everything concerning whales.Despite1. e rağmen: We walked downtown despite the rain.Down1. Aşağı: The ball rolled down the hill. 2. Aşağıda: He lives down the street.During1. Boyunca (dönem): She works during the day. 2. Boyunca (dönem): An accident occurred during the night.Except1. dışında, den başka: I have visited everyone except him.
54 For1. Süre (zaman): We walked for two hours. 2. Mesafe: I walked for five kilometers. 3. Amaç: I bought this jacket for you. 4. Yönelim: She left for New York. 5. Lehinde: We are for the proposal. 6. göz önüne alma: The boy is clever for his age.From1. -den (koken): We left from Boston; he comes from Mexico 2. Başlangıç (zaman): from now on; from yesterday until today 3. Başlangıç (dizi): From 20 to 30 people were present. 4. Neden: He suffers from nervousness. 5. kaynak: I first heard the story from you.
55 1. İçinde: They are inside the house. Into 1. İçinde (alan): in London; in Europe 2. İçinde (yer): in the room; in the building 3. İçinde (zaman dilimi): That happened in March, in İçinde (belli bir zaman): I will return in an hour. 5. ile, kullanarak: write in pencil; speak in English 6. Durum: in doubt; in a hurry; in secret 7. de, da (gruba ait): He is in the orchestra; in the navy 8. İçinde (giyim): the woman in the blue skirt (mavi etekli kadın) 9. açısından: lacking in ideas; rich in oilInside1. İçinde: They are inside the house. Into1. İçe doğru (hareket: We stepped into the room e, -a (değişim): The frog changed into a prince.Like1. Benzeyen: That looks like him. 2. Olası: It looks like rain.
56 1. Çıkarma: Three minus two equals one. Near br> 1. Yakın: near the school; near the oceanOf1. -in, ın (yer): east of here; the middle of the road 2. -in, -ın (aidiyet,sahiplik): a friend of mine; the sound of music 3. üyesi (takım, küme): one of us; a member of the team 4. Birim: a cup of milk; two meters of snowOff1. uzak, uzağında: Please keep off the grass. 2. Biraz ötesinde (mesafe): There are islands off the coast.On1. Üstünde (yüzeye dokunur): on the table; on the wall 2. belli zaman: That happened on Sunday, on the 6th of June. 3. Belli yer: on South Street 4. Hakkında: a book on engineering 5. Durum: on strike; on fire; on holiday 6. ile, aracılığıyla: live on a pension; shown on television
57 1. yukarı doğru: The child climbed onto the table. Opposite 1. karşı karşıya: The library is opposite the fire station.Out of1. Dışına: She went out of the room. 2. Bir kısmı: We won two games out of three. 3. Motive: We spoke to them out of politeness. 4. Madde: The bridge is made out of steel siz, -sız, dışında: out of control; out of dangerOutside 1. dışında (yer): outside the house 2. ötesinde (limit): outside my experienceOver1. üzerinde (dokunma yok): There are cupboards over the sink. 2. Üzerine (kaplama): We spread an extra blanket over the bed. 3. üzerinden: I jumped over a puddle. 4. fazla: It cost over ten dollars; it took over an hour 5. Boyunca: I saw him several times over the past week. 6. Aracılığıyla: We made plans over the telephone
58 1. her bir: 60 kilometers per hour; price per liter Plus Past1. geçene kadar: I walked past the house. 2. Sonra (zaman): It was past 2 o'clock; half past two 3. geçmiş: past beliefPer1. her bir: 60 kilometers per hour; price per literPlus1. ekleme: Six plus four equals ten.Since1. -den beri (zaman): I had been waiting since two o'clock.Through1. Baştan başa; baştan sona, içinden: the main road throughtown 2. Bütün: I slept through the night Aracılığıyla: Skill improves through practice.
59 Throughout 1. Her yerinde: throughout the world 2. bütün, bütünüyle To 1. -e, a, (Yön, yönelim): Turn to the right e, -a, (hedef): I am going to Rome e, -a (karşılaştırma): They prefer hockey to soccer.Toward (or Towards)1. -e doğru (yer): We walked toward the center of town e doğru (zaman): It rained towards evening.Under1. Altında (konum): under the desk; under the trees 2. Altında (Azlık): Under 100 people were present. 3. Altında (koşul): under repair; under way; under discussion
60 Underneath 1. Altında: underneath the carpet Until 1. -e kadar: She will stay until Friday; until 5p.m.Up1. Yukarı (yer): We went up the stairs. 2. yakarda (yer): She lives up the hill.Up to1. Kadar: up to now; I have read up to page e bağlı: The decision is up to you. 3. Uygun: His work is up to standard.
61 PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH PARTICIPLE ADJECTIVES A 1. be absorbed in (be engrossed in)bir seye dalmıs olmak; yoğunlasmak2. be accustomed to alıskın olmak(be used to)3. be acquainted with (be familiar with)biriyle ya da birseyle tanıs olmak4. be addicted to tiryaki olmak5. be amazed at /by sasırmak6. be annoyed with smb. (furious/angry with smb.)birine kızgın olmak7. be annoyed at /about st. bir seye kızgın olmak8. be associated with (be concommitant with)bir seyle özdeslesmek9. be astonished at sasırmak
62 11. be blessed with bir nimete ya da bir lütfa mazhar olmak(bahsedilmis olmak) 12. be bored with sıkılmıs olmakC 13. be committed to kendini bir seye adamak14. be composed of bir seyden mütesekkil olmak(olusmak)15. be concerned about (be anxious about)endiseli olmakbe concerned with (be interested in) ile ilgili olmak16. be confused with kafası karısmak17. be connected to /with −ile bağlantısı olmak18. be convinced of (be persuaded by)ikna olmak19. be covered in /with −ile kaplı olmak20. be crowded with −ile kalabalık olmak
63 D 21. be dedicated to adamak; ithaf etmek 22. be delighted at /with memnun olmak23. be derived from −den türemis olmak24. be disgusted at /with tiksinmek; iğrenmek25. be devoted to kendini bir seye vermek; adamak26. be disappointed at /with hayal kırıklığına uğramak(be disillusioned at /with)27. be discriminated against ayrımcılık yapmak28. be divorced from bosanmıs olmak29. be done with bir is ya da görevi tamamlamak(be finished with)30. be dressed in giyinmek
64 E 31. be engaged in herhangi bir isle mesgul olmak be engaged to nisanlı olmak33. be equipped with −ile donanmıs olmak(be fitted with)34. be excited about /at heyecanlı olmak35. be exposed to maruz kalmakF 36. be filled with −ile dolu olmak37. be finished with (be done with)bir is ya da görevi tamamlamak38. be furnished with dayalı döseli olmakI 39. be impressed with etkilenmek40. be interested in ilgilenmek41. be involved in bir olaya dahil olmakK 42. be known for (be famous for)−ile bilinmek; meshur olmakL 43. be limited to −ile sınırlı olmak(be restricted to)
65 M 44. be made of olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(sadece fiziksel değisim) be made from olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(hem fiziksel hem de kimyasal değisim)be made out of olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(bir ham maddeyi farklı bir amaçla kullanmak)45. be married to evli olmakbe married with çocuk sahibi olmak46. be mistaken about (be wrong about)yanılmakO 47. be obliged to someone (be indebted to smb.;be thankful to smb.) birine zorunlu olmak, minnettar olmak48. be opposed to karsı olmakP 49. be pleased about /with (happy about /with)memnun olmak50. be prepared for hazırlıklı olmak51. be provided with tedarikli olomakR 52. be related to −ile ilgili olmak;akraba olmak53. be remembered for −ile hatırlanmak
66 S 54. be satisfied with tatmin olmak 55. be scared of /at (be afraid of)korkmak56. be separated from ayrı olmak57. be shocked at /by sok olmak58. be surprised at /by sasırmak59. be synchronized with es zamanda olmakT 60. be thrilled at /with heyecanlanmak61. be terrified of korkmak62. be tired of (be fed up with)bıkmak63. be tired from yorulmak64. be troubled with bası belaya girmekU 65. be upset with somebody birine darılmak66. be used to (be accustomed to)alıskın olmakW 67. be worried about endiseli olmak
67 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES As Large : Başıboş,serbestAt a Loss : Ne yapacağını bimez,şaşırmışAt Any Rate:Her nasılsa,en azındanAhead of time:Vaktinden önce,erkenBy heart : EzbereBy and Large:Genel olarakBy any Means::Ne şekilde olursa olsunBy no Means:Asla.
68 Catch sb off guard:Birini gafil avlamak (= For short:KısacasıFor All:-e rağmen (FOr all her qualifications)For the sake of:For the sake of AllahIn the teeth (or) face :-e rağmenİn advance=formerly öncedenİn respect of:ile ilgili olarakİn lout of keeping with:–e uygun olarakMake sense of:anlamını çıkarmakOf late:RecentlyOff one’s guard:Hazırlıksız,tetikte olmayanOn the spot : Hemen,derhalOn avarage:Ortalama olarak
69 Relative to:ile ilişkili olarak Rich in:İle zengin olmak => Rich in oilTake advantage of:YararlanmakTake part in:KatılmakTake notice of:Dikkate almakUp to:-e Kadar => Up to age 70 years.Under no circumstance: Hiçbir şekildeWith the help of:YardımıylaWith a view to:Amacıyla,niyetiyleWithout regard = Regardless of => -e bakılmaksızın
71 Off / On as prepositions: Off functions as a preposition of position or movement and is the converse of on.We speak of getting on a bus and off a bus, taking things off the table and putting them on the floor.Sometimes off describes something that is situated near or next to somewhere, but which is not exactly there.Consider these other similar examples:The Inner and Outer Hebrides are situated off the Western coast of Scotland.
72 Here are some examples of other common usages of off as a preposition: Did she jump off or fall off the cliff or did someone push her off?I'm off alcohol just now.Have you heard? There's 20 % off all CDs at the music shop.
73 Expresssions with off: We also speak about people being off-balance, off-colour, off-duty, doing things on the off-chance and having off days:I caught him completely off-balance and he didn't know what to say.She'd been off-colour for days, but there was no sign of any real illness developing.Brobbins, the club's leading striker, had an off day and missed three open goals.
74 Phrasal verbs with offThere are many common phrasal verbs with off, such as put off (= postpone), knock off (finish work), lay off (dismiss from work, usually temporarily), bring something off (complete something successfully), polish off (eat something quickly):I've been putting it off for weeks, but it's no good, I shall have to go to the dentists soon.Aren't you going to knock off soon? You've been staring into that computer screen all day.They had a wonderful time. I didn't think you'd be able to bring it off.I thought the Christmas cake would hang around for weeks, but they soon polished it off.
75 IN HAND/AT HANDIf you have something at hand, you have something conveniently near you. This something might be a book, a tool or a piece of information. For example:Make sure the safety equipment is at hand when you start working, in case there are any problems.I don’t have Sarah’s number at hand, so I’ll tell you it later.We can actually use the phrase to hand with the same meaning, as in this example.Can you tell me how many items we sold last month? I’m afraid I haven’t got that information to hand. Can I tell you later?
76 The second expression, in hand, has a few meanings or uses. Firstly, if you have something in hand, then you have an extra amount of something, or you have more than you need. We may use this to talk about time, for example:I’m not worried about finishing this essay before the deadline as I still have three days in hand.If you follow football, you will often hear the following, Chelsea are two points behind the league leaders, Manchester United, but Chelsea do have a game in hand. This means that, at the moment, Chelsea have played one game fewer than Manchester United.
77 Secondly, the job, situation, topic or problem that you are dealing with at the moment can be described as the problem in hand. So, at the moment, the topic in hand is the meaning of the phrase ‘in hand’.Thirdly, if you want to say that you are in control of a difficult situation, you can say that you have the situation in hand. For example:Don’t worry about the preparations for the party, I’ve got everything in hand. You don’t need to do anything and it’ll all be ready in time.
78 There are a number of differences in the usage of prepositions and adverbs in the British English and American English. Some of them include: 1. In American English preposition through may mean “up to and including” as in Monday through Friday. In British English preposition to is used instead: Monday to Friday. 2. British sportsmen play in a team, while Americans play on a team (both can play for a particular team). 3. In BrE the word affiliate may be used either with the preposition with or to, in AmE only with is used. 4. The verb check takes no preposition in British English, but it takes the preposition out in American English.
79 5. The verb stay needs preposition at when in the collocation stay at home in British English and no preposition in American English – stay home. 6. In American English the verb meet takes the preposition with in contrast to British English, where no preposition is necessary - meet with them (AmE) vs. meet them (BrE).7. The verb fill (when describing the process of completing forms or applications) needs the preposition out in the American English and the preposition in in the British English. 8. In BrE opposite to is an alternative to opposite of. In the AmE, however, opposite of is the only form regularly used (note that opposite as a preposition – opposite the shop – is used both in BrE and AmE).
80 9. The noun opportunity can be followed either by to-infinitive structure or by a preposition of plus gerund. The latter, however, is rarely if ever used in the AmE and is considered to be Briticism. 10. In Britain people ring or call each other on their phone number, while in America they do it at somebody’s phone number. 11. In BrE the preposition at is usually used when talking about universities or any other educational institutions (She studied foreign languages at university). In AmE, on the other hand, the preposition in can be often used (She studied foreign languages in university). 12. After the verb to write in BrE the preposition to is always used, while in AmE it can be often omitted: I wanted to write to her (BrE). I wanted to write her (AmE). 7. The verb fill (when describing the process of completing forms or applications) needs the preposition out in the American English and the preposition in in the British English.
81 Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions : Agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principleArgue about a matter, with a person, for or against a propositionCompare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)Correspond to a thing, with a persondiffer from an unlike thing, with a personLive at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people
82 Sometimes prepositions can change means of the sentence; We sayI’m married TO John => not WITH.But when we use WITH;the means of sentence totally changes.He is married WITH two children.Means=> he has two children.
83 And sometimes it’s not necessary to use some prepositions with some verbs. She met up with the new coach in the hallway. (with)The book fell off of the desk. (of)He threw the book out of the window. (of)She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. [of)Where did they go to? (to)Where is your college at?(at)How can she survive from accident?(from)
84 Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn.
85 To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand is an important first step.
86 You can improve yourself through the mistakes you make as well as the experiences you go through over the years.To accomplish great things, we must not only dream but also act.The most important feature you must possess in order to succeed in anything is perseverance.Designed by:Şeyhmus BADUR