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PREPOSITIONS Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Definition:

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Presentation on theme: "PREPOSITIONS Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Definition:"— Presentation transcript:

1 PREPOSITIONS Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Or Or Preposition is a word that creates a relationship between other words. Preposition is a word that creates a relationship between other words. It's been said that prepositions often deal with space and time. It's been said that prepositions often deal with space and time.

2 Most often they come before nouns, pronouns, gerunds and noun clauses. They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to. They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.

3  Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult.  One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.

4  There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition.  The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary,reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases of by heart. dictionaryliteraturedictionaryliterature

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6 Preposition Use in/at/on (Prepositions of place) - IN –  *Use 'in' with spaces:  in a room / in a building in a garden / in a park  *Use 'in' with bodies of water:  in the water in the sea in a river  *Use 'in' with lines:  in a row / in a line in a queue

7  I work best in the morning. I'll work again in the evening if I have to, but I prefer to relax in the afternoon.  (But we say at the weekend, at Christmas, at Easter and at night.)

8  There is a subtle difference between the expressions in time (which means before a given time) and on time (which means exactly at that time):  The 7.53 is always on time, but yesterday it was late.  I couldn't get there in time for the beginning of Jo's concert and missed the opening number.

9  We also use IN to describe how much time will pass before something happens or to talk about how long something took or takes. Consider the following:  'Do you mind waiting? I shall be ready in about ten minutes.'

10  'If you order it now, you'll receive it in about two weeks' time.'  'I can run one hundred metres in 12.5 seconds!'

11  AT *Use 'at' with places: at the bus-stop at the door at the cinema at the end of the street *Use 'at' with places on a page: at the top of the page at the bottom of the page *Use 'at' in groups of people: at the back of the class at the front of the class

12  We use AT to SPECIFY POSITION at a point:  He failed to stop AT the traffic lights and went through the light ON red.  I was waiting for AT least half an hour AT the station, but no train came.  I never seem to have any money AT the end of the month. -You shouldn't worry about that - I never have any AT the beginning of the month.

13 You are AT your computer. You can not be IN your computer. You are IN your room IN your house (and AT your house also). Also, if we're using the name of a building we tend to use ‘AT'. We're doing this recording AT Bush House in London.

14 We also use ‘AT' where people work or study when the name of the place is given. So we can say 'I have a cousin who works AT the Pentagon. My daughter is studying AT the Institute of Education‘

15 We also use ‘AT' for group activities. So we could say 'I was AT a concert, a party, a football match. The idea we have with ‘IN' is of a position inside an area or inside a three-dimensional space. So we would say ‘IN the kitchen, IN the woods,IN Malta'.

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17  ON *Use 'on' with surfaces: on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor on the table *Use 'on' with small islands: I stayed on Maui. *Use 'on' with directions: on the left on the right straight on

18 In / at / on the corner We say ‘ IN THE CORNER of a room‘, but but AT THE CORNER (or ‘ON THE CORNER') of a street' AT THE CORNER (or ‘ON THE CORNER') of a street'

19  ON SALE : İNDİRİMDE  FOR SALE : SATILIK ON SALE OR FOR SALE ?

20  In / at / on the front We say 'in the front / in the back' of a car We say 'at the front / at the back' of buildings / groups of people We say 'on the front / on the back' of a piece of paper

21  ON and IN for place:  WE USE IN to specify position inside larger areas such as containers, rooms, towns, countries, etc.  WE USE to specify position ON a line or country Compare the following:  I live IN Cizre.  Is that IN BATMAN?  No, it's IN ŞIRNAK

22  Have you seen my yellow T-shirt? Yes, it's IN the wardrobe. Yes, it's IN the wardrobe.  Where abouts IN the wardrobe? It's ON the fourth shelf AT the front. It's ON the fourth shelf AT the front.  Did you find it? Yes, it was ON the bottom shelf AT the back. They have lots of family photographs ON the walls ON the landing, but no curtains AT any of the windows. Yes, it was ON the bottom shelf AT the back. They have lots of family photographs ON the walls ON the landing, but no curtains AT any of the windows. I'll meet you AT the theatre. I'll meet you AT the theatre. Where exactly? Where exactly? In the foyer AT 7.15. In the foyer AT 7.15.

23  If we want to use very formal grammar we say On what day is your birthday? On what day is your birthday?  You know we say this because the answer, which should be It is on Tuesday, includes the preposition ‘on’. It is on Tuesday, includes the preposition ‘on’.  However, this is an example of a grammar rule that is not very strict, because, in everyday English, in less formal situations, most people say: What day is your birthday? What day is your birthday?

24  You will also hear: What day is your birthday on? Again,this is a less formal style, but it is commonly used. What day is your birthday on? Again,this is a less formal style, but it is commonly used.  To finish,it is very common to use ‘when’ rather than ‘what’.  When is the Christmas party?  When is the Christmas party? instead of instead of On what day is the Christmas party?

25 IN / AT / TO IN / AT / TO Prepositions of Place and Movement,   At, on and in are the main prepositions in English indicating position.Generally speaking:   IN is used to specify position inside larger areas;   ON is used to specify position on a line.   AT is used to specify position in a larger place.

26   Compare the following:   'They were walking on the beach.'   'They were playing in the sand.'   'They were lying on the warm sand, reading their books.'   In the first example, we imagine people at a certain point on their walk along the beach.

27   In the second example a group of children surrounded by sand and having fun in the sand,   And in the third example, older children or adults lying on top of the sand, so on is most appropriate here.

28  Use of an appropriate preposition sometimes depends on how we think about it. When we say people walking in the sand, When we say people walking in the sand, one imagines soft sand, which their feet sometimes disappear into; one imagines soft sand, which their feet sometimes disappear into; But if we say on the sand, But if we say on the sand, we would imagine it as hard sand which their feet do not sink into. we would imagine it as hard sand which their feet do not sink into. Both on and in are therefore possible alternatives in this example. Both on and in are therefore possible alternatives in this example.

29  We read about things in a newspaper.  To find what we are looking for, we usually have to open the newspaper and look inside. Therefore in is the most appropriate preposition.  Compare the following:  'I saw it ON BBC World, heard about it ON the BBC World Service and then read about it IN the Times

30  'There were crowds of people ON the streets.'  'IN the street where I live there are speed bumps every fifty yards.'  In the first example, we imagine someone surveying the crowds from a distance. In the second example the perspective is from inside the street In the second example the perspective is from inside the street

31  DETAILS With the verb 'visit'  She visited France last summer.  With verbs of movement and the noun 'home‘  He went home.  They drove home.

32  Most verbs expressing direction require the preposition TO before the noun, but not home. Compare the following:  I made my way to the mosque before sunrise.  I ran all the way to the theatre so that I wouldn't be late.  I'm going to walk to work from now on. It's healthier.  I arrived at the harbour just as the boat was leaving.

33  Once you arrive home, you are then AT HOME and no more direction is suggested, so at is then the appropriate preposition to use with home:  Will you be AT HOME tonight or are you going out?  No, I'll be at home.  However, even here, at is often omitted, especially in American English.

34 For /While / During  FOR Use 'for' with a period of time to express the duration or 'how long' something has happened: for three weeks for many years  WHILE Use 'while' plus a verb form: while I was watching TV while I lived in New York  DURING  Use 'during' with a noun to express 'when' something happens: during class during my vacation during the discussion

35 In / At / On Prepositions of time and Date IN Use 'in' months and years and periods of time: in January in 1978 in the twenties Use 'in' a period of time in the future: in a few weeks in a couple of days AT Use 'at' with precise time: at six o'clock at 10.30 at two p.m. ON Use 'on' with days of the week: on Monday on Fridays Use 'on' with specific calendar days: on Christmas day on October 22nd

36  Zero preposition with time phrases :  At/in/on are not normally used with time phrases starting with next, last, this, that, every, some, all. Consider the following:  'Last year I made a cake for Jenny's birthday, but this year I'm going to buy one.‘  'Are you free this morning? If not, I'll see you next week.'  'I'm at home all day tomorrow, so come round (at) any time

37  OTHER COMMON PREPOSITIONS about above according to across after against along along with among apart from around as as for at

38  because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but* by by means of  concerning despite down during except except for excepting

39  for from in in addition to in back of in case of in front of in place of inside in spite of instead of into like near next of off on onto on top of out out of outside over

40   past regarding round since through throughout till to toward under underneath unlike until up upon up to with within without

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42  EASY PREPOSITIONS  In: içinde (sabit durumda ve dışında olmayan) At:...de,...da Into: içinde (hareket olduğunda) On: üzerinde (statik olarak) Onto: üzerinde (dinamik olarak) Under: altında Up: yukarıya, yukarıda Down: aşağıya, aşağıda After:...den sonra Before:...den önce With: ile Without:...sız Of:...nın (telafuzu hafif bir “v” sesi iledir) Off: haricinde, dışında (tek başına kullanılmaz, değimselleşmiş kalıplarda. “of” olarak telafuz edilir.)

43  By: ile, tarafından,...e kadar Near:...nın yakınında,...e yakın Next to:...nın yanına, bitişiğinde Like: gibi Unlike: aksine As: olarak From:...den,...dan, (somut olarak) Out of:...den,...dan (soyut olarak) Beyond: ötesinde Behind: arkasında Beneath: (yerin) altında Beside:...den başka,...nın yanında Over: üstünde (temas olmadan) “over” bir önek olarak kullanılrsa sonrasındaki kelimeye “aşırı, fazla” anlamını katar. Bu kullanımda artık edat değildir.

44  2.) COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS  İn spite of:...e rağmen Despite: Due to Owing to On account to:...den dolayı Becouse to İn view of  PAY ATTENTION !!!  WE CAN SEE THIS GROUP OF PREPOSITIONS IN KPDS Regarding Concerning As regards:...e ilşkin With regard to About İn case:...durumunda İn the event of İn terms of: itibariyle, bakımından With respect to:...e göre (kıyaslamada) According to:...e göre (görüş belirtirken) İn addition to:...e ilaveten İnstead of...nın yerine,...cek yerde İn place of

45  Rather than:...den ziyade Apart from:...den başka Prior to...den önce Before Unlıke İn contrast to...nın aksine Different from  As well as: hem.......hem, yanısıra  İn relation to...e oranla İn proportion to  For my part: bana göre By way of: yoluyla By means of: vasıtasıyla Except = except of:...hariç,...dışında From the point of view of İn terms of bakımından With regard to For my part bana göre As far as I am concerned As well as İn addition to ayrıca, yanısıra Besides Appart from

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47 THERE ARE ALSO OTHER COMMON PREPOSITIONS PREPOSITIONS above at by into toward about before down like through across behind during near under after below except of until against beneath for off up along beside from on upon among between in since with around beyond inside to within above at by into toward about before down like through across behind during near under after below except of until against beneath for off up along beside from on upon among between in since with around beyond inside to within

48 About About 1. Hakkında: A book about chemistry. 2. Yaklaşık olarak: The Car is about ten million Usd. 2. Yaklaşık olarak: The Car is about ten million Usd. Above Above 1. Üzerinde: A tiny window above the door. Across 1. Bir uçtan diğer uca: Drew the curtain across the window. 2. Karşı taraf: There is a Market across the village. 2. Karşı taraf: There is a Market across the village. After After 1. Sonra (zaman): after 6 o'clock; after breakfast. 2. Sonra (dizi): B comes after A in the alphabet. 3. Ardından: The wolf run after the cat. 3. Ardından: The wolf run after the cat.

49 Against Against 1. Karşı: Theft is against the law. 2. Yaslanmak (destek): Vines trained against the wall. 2. Yaslanmak (destek): Vines trained against the wall.Along 1. Boyunca: He walked along the street. Among Among 1. Arasında (İkiden fazla şeyin): The valley nestled among high mountains. Around Around 1. Çevresinde: We ran around the buildings. 2. çevreleyen: There is a fence around the garden. 2. çevreleyen: There is a fence around the garden. 3. Çeşitli yerler: I looked around the house for the keys. 4. Geriye: We turned around and went back home. 5. Yaklaşık olarak: He is around six km tall. 3. Çeşitli yerler: I looked around the house for the keys. 4. Geriye: We turned around and went back home. 5. Yaklaşık olarak: He is around six km tall.

50 At At 1. de, da (Yer): at the park (Parkta) 2. an (zaman): at 6 o'clock; at Christmas 3. an (durum): at peace; at war; at rest 4. etkinlik: at work; at home; at play 5. e doğru: Look at someone; wave at someone. Before Before 1. Önce (zaman): before four o'clock; before Christmas 2. Önce (dizi): Y comes before Z in the alphabet. Behind 1. At the back of: The little girl hid behind her mother. 2. Late: I am behind in my work. 3. Cause; origin: Who was behind that idea? Below 1. Altında: below freezing; below sea level 2. Altında (sonra): Footnotes are provided below the text.

51 Beneath Beneath 1. Altında: beneath the earth Beside 1. Yanında, bitişiğinde (fiziksel): I sit beside her in class. Besides 1. Ek olarak, -de, -da: We study other languages besides English. Between 1. Arasında (konum): Toronto lies between Montreal and Vancouver. 2. Arasında (zaman): between Christmas and New Year's Day 3. Arasında (dizi): B comes between A and C in the alphabet. 4. Arasında (miktar): between five and ten people 5. Arasında (içinde): I was between two people.

52 Beyond Beyond 1. Ötesinde: The mountains lie beyond the horizon. 2. Ötesinde (fazlalık): That was beyond my expectations. 1. Ötesinde: The mountains lie beyond the horizon. 2. Ötesinde (fazlalık): That was beyond my expectations.But 1. den başka: I have read all but the last chapter. By 1. Yakınında: a house by the sea 2. Yanından: He waved as he drove by the house. 3. Not later than: Try to finish the work by next week. 4. birden çok birim: cheaper by the dozen; sold by weight 5. vasıtasıyla: travel by plane; written by him

53 Concerning 1. ilgili: He learnt everything concerning whales. Despite Despite 1. e rağmen: We walked downtown despite the rain. Down 1. Aşağı: The ball rolled down the hill. 2. Aşağıda: He lives down the street. During 1. Boyunca (dönem): She works during the day. 2. Boyunca (dönem): An accident occurred during the night. Except Except 1. dışında, den başka: I have visited everyone except him.

54 For For 1. Süre (zaman): We walked for two hours. 2. Mesafe: I walked for five kilometers. 3. Amaç: I bought this jacket for you. 4. Yönelim: She left for New York. 5. Lehinde: We are for the proposal. 6. göz önüne alma: The boy is clever for his age. From 1. -den (koken): We left from Boston; he comes from Mexico 2. Başlangıç (zaman): from now on; from yesterday until today 3. Başlangıç (dizi): From 20 to 30 people were present. 4. Neden: He suffers from nervousness. 5. kaynak: I first heard the story from you.

55 In In 1. İçinde (alan): in London; in Europe 2. İçinde (yer): in the room; in the building 3. İçinde (zaman dilimi): That happened in March, in 1992. 4. İçinde (belli bir zaman): I will return in an hour. 5. ile, kullanarak: write in pencil; speak in English 6. Durum: in doubt; in a hurry; in secret 7. de, da (gruba ait): He is in the orchestra; in the navy 8. İçinde (giyim): the woman in the blue skirt (mavi etekli kadın) 9. açısından: lacking in ideas; rich in oil Inside 1. İçinde: They are inside the house. Into 1. İçe doğru (hareket: We stepped into the room. 2. -e, -a (değişim): The frog changed into a prince. 1. İçe doğru (hareket: We stepped into the room. 2. -e, -a (değişim): The frog changed into a prince.Like 1. Benzeyen: That looks like him. 2. Olası: It looks like rain.

56 Minus Minus 1. Çıkarma: Three minus two equals one. Near br> 1. Yakın: near the school; near the ocean br> 1. Yakın: near the school; near the ocean Of Of 1. -in, ın (yer): east of here; the middle of the road 2. -in, -ın (aidiyet,sahiplik): a friend of mine; the sound of music 3. üyesi (takım, küme): one of us; a member of the team 4. Birim: a cup of milk; two meters of snow Off 1. uzak, uzağında: Please keep off the grass. 2. Biraz ötesinde (mesafe): There are islands off the coast. On On 1. Üstünde (yüzeye dokunur): on the table; on the wall 2. belli zaman: That happened on Sunday, on the 6th of June. 3. Belli yer: on South Street 4. Hakkında: a book on engineering 5. Durum: on strike; on fire; on holiday 6. ile, aracılığıyla: live on a pension; shown on television

57 Onto Onto 1. yukarı doğru: The child climbed onto the table. 1. yukarı doğru: The child climbed onto the table.Opposite 1. karşı karşıya: The library is opposite the fire station. 1. karşı karşıya: The library is opposite the fire station. Out of 1. Dışına: She went out of the room. 2. Bir kısmı: We won two games out of three. 3. Motive: We spoke to them out of politeness. 4. Madde: The bridge is made out of steel. 5. -siz, -sız, dışında: out of control; out of danger 1. Dışına: She went out of the room. 2. Bir kısmı: We won two games out of three. 3. Motive: We spoke to them out of politeness. 4. Madde: The bridge is made out of steel. 5. -siz, -sız, dışında: out of control; out of dangerOutside 1. dışında (yer): outside the house 2. ötesinde (limit): outside my experience 1. dışında (yer): outside the house 2. ötesinde (limit): outside my experienceOver 1. üzerinde (dokunma yok): There are cupboards over the sink. 2. Üzerine (kaplama): We spread an extra blanket over the bed. 3. üzerinden: I jumped over a puddle. 4. fazla: It cost over ten dollars; it took over an hour 5. Boyunca: I saw him several times over the past week. 6. Aracılığıyla: We made plans over the telephone 1. üzerinde (dokunma yok): There are cupboards over the sink. 2. Üzerine (kaplama): We spread an extra blanket over the bed. 3. üzerinden: I jumped over a puddle. 4. fazla: It cost over ten dollars; it took over an hour 5. Boyunca: I saw him several times over the past week. 6. Aracılığıyla: We made plans over the telephone

58 Past Past 1. geçene kadar: I walked past the house. 2. Sonra (zaman): It was past 2 o'clock; half past two 3. geçmiş: past belief Per Per 1. her bir: 60 kilometers per hour; price per liter Plus Plus 1. ekleme: Six plus four equals ten. Since Since 1. -den beri (zaman): I had been waiting since two o'clock. 1. -den beri (zaman): I had been waiting since two o'clock. Through Through 1. Baştan başa; baştan sona, içinden: the main road through 1. Baştan başa; baştan sona, içinden: the main road through town 2. Bütün: I slept through the night. 3. Aracılığıyla: Skill improves through practice. town 2. Bütün: I slept through the night. 3. Aracılığıyla: Skill improves through practice.

59 Throughout Throughout 1. Her yerinde: throughout the world 2. bütün, bütünüyle To To 1. -e, a, (Yön, yönelim): Turn to the right. 2. -e, -a, (hedef): I am going to Rome. 3. -e, -a (karşılaştırma): They prefer hockey to soccer. 1. -e, a, (Yön, yönelim): Turn to the right. 2. -e, -a, (hedef): I am going to Rome. 3. -e, -a (karşılaştırma): They prefer hockey to soccer. Toward (or Towards) 1. -e doğru (yer): We walked toward the center of town. 2. -e doğru (zaman): It rained towards evening. Under 1. Altında (konum): under the desk; under the trees 2. Altında (Azlık): Under 100 people were present. 3. Altında (koşul): under repair; under way; under discussion

60 Underneath Underneath 1. Altında: underneath the carpet Until Until 1. -e kadar: She will stay until Friday; until 5 1. -e kadar: She will stay until Friday; until 5 p.m. p.m. Up Up 1. Yukarı (yer): We went up the stairs. 2. yakarda (yer): She lives up the hill. Up to 1. Kadar: up to now; I have read up to page 100. 2. -e bağlı: The decision is up to you. 3. Uygun: His work is up to standard.

61  PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH PARTICIPLE ADJECTIVES  A 1. be absorbed in (be engrossed in)bir seye dalmıs olmak; yoğunlasmak  2. be accustomed to alıskın olmak(be used to)  3. be acquainted with (be familiar with)biriyle ya da birseyle tanıs olmak  4. be addicted to tiryaki olmak  5. be amazed at /by sasırmak  6. be annoyed with smb. (furious/angry with smb.)birine kızgın olmak  7. be annoyed at /about st. bir seye kızgın olmak  8. be associated with (be concommitant with)bir seyle özdeslesmek  9. be astonished at sasırmak

62  11. be blessed with bir nimete ya da bir lütfa mazhar olmak(bahsedilmis olmak)  12. be bored with sıkılmıs olmak  C 13. be committed to kendini bir seye adamak  14. be composed of bir seyden mütesekkil olmak(olusmak)  15. be concerned about (be anxious about)endiseli olmak  be concerned with (be interested in) ile ilgili olmak  16. be confused with kafası karısmak  17. be connected to /with −ile bağlantısı olmak  18. be convinced of (be persuaded by)ikna olmak  19. be covered in /with −ile kaplı olmak  20. be crowded with −ile kalabalık olmak

63  D 21. be dedicated to adamak; ithaf etmek  22. be delighted at /with memnun olmak  23. be derived from −den türemis olmak  24. be disgusted at /with tiksinmek; iğrenmek  25. be devoted to kendini bir seye vermek; adamak  26. be disappointed at /with hayal kırıklığına uğramak(be disillusioned at /with)  27. be discriminated against ayrımcılık yapmak  28. be divorced from bosanmıs olmak  29. be done with bir is ya da görevi tamamlamak(be finished with)  30. be dressed in giyinmek

64  E 31. be engaged in herhangi bir isle mesgul olmak  be engaged to nisanlı olmak  33. be equipped with −ile donanmıs olmak(be fitted with)  34. be excited about /at heyecanlı olmak  35. be exposed to maruz kalmak  F 36. be filled with −ile dolu olmak  37. be finished with (be done with)bir is ya da görevi tamamlamak  38. be furnished with dayalı döseli olmak  I 39. be impressed with etkilenmek  40. be interested in ilgilenmek  41. be involved in bir olaya dahil olmak  K 42. be known for (be famous for)−ile bilinmek; meshur olmak  L 43. be limited to −ile sınırlı olmak(be restricted to)

65  M 44. be made of olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(sadece fiziksel değisim)  be made from olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(hem fiziksel hem de kimyasal değisim)  be made out of olusmus olmak; meydana gelmek(bir ham maddeyi farklı bir amaçla kullanmak)  45. be married to evli olmak  be married with çocuk sahibi olmak  46. be mistaken about (be wrong about)yanılmak  O 47. be obliged to someone (be indebted to smb.;be thankful to smb.) birine zorunlu olmak, minnettar olmak  48. be opposed to karsı olmak  P 49. be pleased about /with (happy about /with)memnun olmak  50. be prepared for hazırlıklı olmak  51. be provided with tedarikli olomak  R 52. be related to −ile ilgili olmak;akraba olmak  53. be remembered for −ile hatırlanmak

66  S 54. be satisfied with tatmin olmak  55. be scared of /at (be afraid of)korkmak  56. be separated from ayrı olmak  57. be shocked at /by sok olmak  58. be surprised at /by sasırmak  59. be synchronized with es zamanda olmak  T 60. be thrilled at /with heyecanlanmak  61. be terrified of korkmak  62. be tired of (be fed up with)bıkmak  63. be tired from yorulmak  64. be troubled with bası belaya girmek  U 65. be upset with somebody birine darılmak  66. be used to (be accustomed to)alıskın olmak  W 67. be worried about endiseli olmak

67  PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES  As Large : Başıboş,serbest  At a Loss : Ne yapacağını bimez,şaşırmış  At Any Rate:Her nasılsa,en azından  Ahead of time:Vaktinden önce,erken  By heart : Ezbere  By and Large:Genel olarak  By any Means::Ne şekilde olursa olsun  By no Means:Asla.

68  Catch sb off guard:Birini gafil avlamak (=  For short:Kısacası  For All:-e rağmen (FOr all her qualifications)  For the sake of:For the sake of Allah  In the teeth (or) face :-e rağmen  İn advance=formerly önceden  İn respect of:ile ilgili olarak  İn lout of keeping with:–e uygun olarak  Make sense of:anlamını çıkarmak  Of late:Recently  Off one’s guard:Hazırlıksız,tetikte olmayan  On the spot : Hemen,derhal  On avarage:Ortalama olarak

69  Relative to:ile ilişkili olarak  Rich in:İle zengin olmak => Rich in oil  Take advantage of:Yararlanmak  Take part in:Katılmak  Take notice of:Dikkate almak  Up to:-e Kadar => Up to age 70 years.  Under no circumstance: Hiçbir şekilde  With the help of:Yardımıyla  With a view to:Amacıyla,niyetiyle  Without regard = Regardless of => -e bakılmaksızın

70 OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS

71  Off / On as prepositions:  Off functions as a preposition of position or movement and is the converse of on.  We speak of getting on a bus and off a bus, taking things off the table and putting them on the floor.  Sometimes off describes something that is situated near or next to somewhere, but which is not exactly there. Consider these other similar examples: Consider these other similar examples:  The Inner and Outer Hebrides are situated off the Western coast of Scotland.

72  Here are some examples of other common usages of off as a preposition:  Did she jump off or fall off the cliff or did someone push her off?  I'm off alcohol just now.  Have you heard? There's 20 % off all CDs at the music shop.

73  Expresssions with off: We also speak about people being off-balance, off- colour, off-duty, doing things on the off-chance and having off days: We also speak about people being off-balance, off- colour, off-duty, doing things on the off-chance and having off days:  I caught him completely off-balance and he didn't know what to say.  She'd been off-colour for days, but there was no sign of any real illness developing.  Brobbins, the club's leading striker, had an off day and missed three open goals.

74  Phrasal verbs with off  There are many common phrasal verbs with off, such as put off (= postpone), knock off (finish work), lay off (dismiss from work, usually temporarily), bring something off (complete something successfully), polish off (eat something quickly):  I've been putting it off for weeks, but it's no good, I shall have to go to the dentists soon .  Aren't you going to knock off soon? You've been staring into that computer screen all day.  They had a wonderful time. I didn't think you'd be able to bring it off.  I thought the Christmas cake would hang around for weeks, but they soon polished it off.

75  IN HAND/AT HAND  If you have something at hand, you have something conveniently near you. This something might be a book, a tool or a piece of information. For example:  Make sure the safety equipment is at hand when you start working, in case there are any problems.  I don’t have Sarah’s number at hand, so I’ll tell you it later.  We can actually use the phrase to hand with the same meaning, as in this example.  Can you tell me how many items we sold last month? I’m afraid I haven’t got that information to hand. Can I tell you later?

76  The second expression, in hand, has a few meanings or uses.  Firstly, if you have something in hand, then you have an extra amount of something, or you have more than you need. We may use this to talk about time, for example:  I’m not worried about finishing this essay before the deadline as I still have three days in hand.  If you follow football, you will often hear the following, Chelsea are two points behind the league leaders, Manchester United, but Chelsea do have a game in hand. This means that, at the moment, Chelsea have played one game fewer than Manchester United.

77  Secondly, the job, situation, topic or problem that you are dealing with at the moment can be described as the problem in hand. So, at the moment, the topic in hand is the meaning of the phrase ‘in hand’.  Thirdly, if you want to say that you are in control of a difficult situation, you can say that you have the situation in hand. For example:  Don’t worry about the preparations for the party, I’ve got everything in hand. You don’t need to do anything and it’ll all be ready in time.

78  There are a number of differences in the usage of prepositions and adverbs in the British English and American English. Some of them include: 1. In American English preposition through may mean “up to and including” as in Monday through Friday. In British English preposition to is used instead: Monday to Friday. 2. British sportsmen play in a team, while Americans play on a team (both can play for a particular team). 3. In BrE the word affiliate may be used either with the preposition with or to, in AmE only with is used. 4. The verb check takes no preposition in British English, but it takes the preposition out in American English.

79  5. The verb stay needs preposition at when in the collocation stay at home in British English and no preposition in American English – stay home. 6. In American English the verb meet takes the preposition with in contrast to British English, where no preposition is necessary - meet with them (AmE) vs. meet them (BrE). 7. The verb fill (when describing the process of completing forms or applications) needs the preposition out in the American English and the preposition in in the British English. 8. In BrE opposite to is an alternative to opposite of. In the AmE, however, opposite of is the only form regularly used (note that opposite as a preposition – opposite the shop – is used both in BrE and AmE).

80  9. The noun opportunity can be followed either by to-infinitive structure or by a preposition of plus gerund. The latter, however, is rarely if ever used in the AmE and is considered to be Briticism. 10. In Britain people ring or call each other on their phone number, while in America they do it at somebody’s phone number. 11. In BrE the preposition at is usually used when talking about universities or any other educational institutions (She studied foreign languages at university). In AmE, on the other hand, the preposition in can be often used (She studied foreign languages in university). 12. After the verb to write in BrE the preposition to is always used, while in AmE it can be often omitted: I wanted to write to her (BrE). I wanted to write her (AmE). 7. The verb fill (when describing the process of completing forms or applications) needs the preposition out in the American English and the preposition in in the British English.

81  Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions :  Agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle  Argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition  Compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)  Correspond to a thing, with a person  differ from an unlike thing, with a person  Live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

82  Sometimes prepositions can change means of the sentence; We say I’m married TO John => not WITH.  But when we use WITH;the means of sentence totally changes. He is married WITH two children. Means=> he has two children.

83  And sometimes it’s not necessary to use some prepositions with some verbs. She met up with the new coach in the hallway. (with) The book fell off of the desk. (of) He threw the book out of the window. (of) She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. [of) Where did they go to? (to) Where is your college at?(at) How can she survive from accident?(from)

84  Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn.

85  To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand is an important first step.

86   You can improve yourself through the mistakes you make as well as the experiences you go through over the years.   To accomplish great things, we must not only dream but also act.   The most important feature you must possess in order to succeed in anything is perseverance. Designed by: Şeyhmus BADUR


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