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1 Kort introduktion til OAIS Open Archival Information System.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Kort introduktion til OAIS Open Archival Information System."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Kort introduktion til OAIS Open Archival Information System

2 2 Program DEL 1 •OAIS •Arkivbegrebet •Informationsbegrebet •Processerne •Relaterede standarder

3 3 Historie •NASA National Space Science Data Center er NASAs første digitale arkiv – siden 1966 •Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) har deltaget i ISO- arbejde siden 1990 •”Blue book” fra CCSDS i 2002 •Nu en CCSDS ”Recommendation” og en ISO Standard

4 4 OAIS DEKLARATION: Informationsbegreb 40% Procesbeskrivelser 40% Interfaces 10% Diverse + fyldstoffer 10%

5 5 En ”Reference model” •Abstrakt – top-down •Forstå sammenhænge – arkivarer, ledere, brugere •Rammemodel for yderligere standardisering •Fokus på elektroniske arkivalier, men også ikke-elektroniske

6 6 Hvem bruger det? •”Alle” •Digitale biblioteker •Papirarkiver •Videnskabelige datacentre

7 7 Hvad er et Arkiv? •OAIS: Et arkivs hovedopgave er at bevare en samling information og gøre denne tilgængelig i en forståelig og brugbar form for et udpeget ”Designated Community” (”udpeget målgruppe” ?)

8 8 Model View of an OAIS Environment  Producer is the role played by those persons, or client systems, who provide the information to be preserved  Management is the role played by those who set overall OAIS policy as one component in a broader policy domain  Consumer is the role played by those persons, or client systems, who interact with OAIS services to find and acquire preserved information of interest OAIS (archive) Management Producer Consumer

9 9 Open Archival Information System: Six Functional Entities SIP = Submission Information Package SIP DIP Administration PRODUCERPRODUCER CONSUMERCONSUMER queries result sets MANAGEMENT Ingest Access Data Management Archival Storage Descriptive Info. Preservation Planning orders AIP AIP = Archival Information Package DIP = Dissemination Information Package

10 10 OAIS Information Definition  Information is always expressed (i.e., represented) by some type of data  Data interpreted using its Representation Information yields Information  Information Object preservation requires clear identification and understanding of the Data Object and its associated Representation Information Data Object Interpreted Using its Representation Information Yields Information Object

11 11 Information Package Definition  An Information Package is a conceptual container holding two types of information – Content Information – Preservation Description Information (PDI) Preservation Description Information Content Information

12 12 Information Object Information Object Representation Information 1+ Interpreted using 1+Data Object Physical Object Digital Object Bit Sequence 1+ Interpreted using

13 13 Recursive Nature of Representation Information  Structure Information  Semantic Information  Other Representation Information Interpreted using Semantic Information Structure Information Other Representation Information adds meaning to Representation Information * 1 * 1

14 14 Types of Information Used in OAIS Information Object Content Information Packaging Information Preservation Description Information Descriptive Information...

15 15 Content Information  The information which is the primary object of preservation  An instance of Content Information is the information that an archive is tasked to preserve.  Deciding what is the Content Information may not be obvious and may need to be negotiated with the Producer  The Data Object in the Content Information may be either a Digital Object or a Physical Object (e.g., a physical sample, microfilm)

16 16 Preservation Description Information •Provenance Information –Describes the source of Content Information, who has had custody of it, what is its history •Context Information –Describes how the Content Information relates to other information outside the Information Package •Reference Information –Provides one or more identifiers, or systems of identifiers, by which the Content Information may be uniquely identified •Fixity Information –Protects the Content Information from undocumented alteration

17 17 PDI Examples

18 18 Descriptive Information  Contain the data that serves as the input to documents or applications called Access Aids.  Access Aids can be used by a consumer to locate, analyze, retrieve, or order information from the OAIS.

19 19 Packaging Information  Information which, either actually or logically, binds and relates the components of the package into an identifiable entity on specific media  Examples of Packaging Information include tape marks, directory structures and filenames

20 20 OAIS Archival Information Package Archival Information Package (AIP) Content Information Preservation Description Information (PDI) e.g., • Hardcopy document • Document as an electronic file together with its format description • Scientific data set consisting of image file, text file, and format descriptions file describing the other files e.g., • How the Content Information came into being, who has held it, how it relates to other information, and how its integrity is assured Packaging Information Package Description further described by delimited by derived from e.g., How to find Content information and PDI on some medium e.g., Information supporting customer searches for AIP

21 21 AIP Types  Archival Information Unit (AIU) contains a single Data Object as the Content Object  Archival Information Collection (AIC) contains multiple AIPs in its Content Object –Each member of an AIC is an AIP containing Content Information and PDI –The AIC contains unique PDI on the collection process Archival Information Package Archival Information Unit Archival Information Collection

22 22 Package Descriptions and Access Aids  Package Descriptions are needed by an OAIS to provide visibility and access to the OAIS holdings  Package Descriptions contain 1 or more Associated Descriptions which describe the AIP Content Information from the point of view of a single Access Aid  Some example of Access Aids Include: –Finding Aids - assist the consumer in locating information of interest –Ordering Aids - allow the consumer to discover the cost of and order AIUs of interest –Retrieval Aids - enable authorized users to retrieve the AIU described by the Unit Descriptor from Archival Storage

23 23 Information Model Summary  Presented a model of information objects as containing data objects and representation objects  Classified information required for Long-term archiving into 4 classes: Content Information, PDI, Packaging Information and Descriptive Information  Described how these classes would be aggregated and related in an AIP to fully describe an instance of Content Information  Presented information needed for Access, in addition to that needed for Long-term Preservation  Put the Access oriented structures in the context of the other data needed to operate an OAIS

24 24 Detailed Models Functional View

25 25 General Principles  Highlight the major functional areas important to digital archiving  Use functional decomposition to clarify the range of functionality that might be encountered –Don't decompose beyond two levels to avoid becoming too implementation dependent –Provide a useful set of terms and concepts –Do not imply that all archives need to implement all the sub- functions  Identify some common services which are likely to be needed, and are assumed to be available, as underlying support

26 26 Open Archival Information System: Six Functional Entities SIP = Submission Information Package SIP DIP Administration PRODUCERPRODUCER CONSUMERCONSUMER queries result sets MANAGEMENT Ingest Access Data Management Archival Storage Descriptive Info. Preservation Planning orders AIP AIP = Archival Information Package DIP = Dissemination Information Package

27 27 Functional Entities In An OAIS  Ingest: This entity provides the services and functions to accept Submission Information Packages (SIPs) from Producers and prepare the contents for storage and management within the archive  Archival Storage: This entity provides the services and functions for the storage, maintenance and retrieval of Archival Information Packages  Data Management: This entity provides the services and functions for populating, maintaining, and accessing both descriptive information which identifies and documents archive holdings and internal archive administrative data.  Administration: This entity manages the overall operation of the archive system  Preservation Planning: This entity monitors the environment of the OAIS and provides recommendations to ensure that the information stored in the OAIS remain accessible to the Designated User Community over the long term even if the original computing environment becomes obsolete.  Access: This entity supports consumers in determining the existence, description, location and availability of information stored in the OAIS and allowing consumers to request and receive information products

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29 29 Ingest Data Flow Diagram

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34 34 Digital Migration Approaches • Four primary types of digital migration in response to motivators, ordered by increasing risk of information loss: – Refreshment •Media replacement with no bit changes – Replication •No change to Packaging Information or Content Information bits – Repackaging •Some bit changes in Packaging Information – Transformation •Reversible: Bit changes in Content Information are reversible by an algorithm •Non-reversible: Bit changes in Content Information are not reversible by an algorithm

35 35 Relaterede standarder (Generelt) •International Council on Archives: Handbook No. 7, 1988: Dictionary of Archival Terminology: English and French… og 5 andre sprog •På vej fra Research Libraries Group (RLG): Certificeringskrav for arkiver

36 36 Schema for metadata •For biblioteker: METS, MARC, MODS, MIX, TEI, EAD, ONIX •For arkiver: OAI-MARC m.fl., men •Mange er ”extensible” •Ingen er rigtig slået igennem

37 37 Relaterede standarder (Representation Information) •EAST: ISO standard for databeskrivelse (syntaktisk beskrivelse) •Data Entity Dictionary Specification Language (DEDSL) – Abstract Syntax (semantisk beskrivelse) •ISO-standarder fra Technical Committee (TC) 211: Referencemodel for geo-data

38 38 Relaterede standarder (Ingest) •CCSDS, 2004: Producer-Archive Interface Methodology Abstract Standard •På vej fra CCSDS: XML-baserede SIP’er

39 39 Mulige fordele ved OAIS •En anerkendt ”Best Practice” for arkiver •Lettere at kommunikere internationalt •Lettere at kommunikere med ikke- arkivpersonale

40 40 Idéer 1 •Tilpasse sprogbrug og tankegang til OAIS så vi bedre kan kommunikere og i øvrigt støtte os til OAIS’ informationsbegreb og processer. •Tilpasse vores danske begrebsapparat til OAIS.

41 41 Idéer 2 Justere vores informationsbegreb og: •Systematisk udpege målgruppen for nye afleveringer •Lade målgruppen danne grundlag for krav til Representation Information og Preservation Description Information (”kontekst”) i hvert enkelt tilfælde •Gruppere metadata ifølge OAIS

42 42 Idéer 3 Få commitment til OAIS fra hele RA •Et OAIS arkiv skal have ”custody” over hele arkivaliet – dette inkluderer f.eks. søgebeskrivelsen i DAISY

43 43 Idéer 4 •Gennemgå vores processer i forhold til OAIS og ”Producer-Archive Interface Methodology Abstract Standard” (”PAIMAS” ? ) så vi bliver bekræftet i at vi har tænkt på det hele.

44 44 Idéer 5 Overveje at indgå i et arkivsamarbejde: •Fælles søgemidler (på tværs af arkiver) •Fælles ”Archival Storage” (bevaringsdel) – fælles digitalt bevaringscenter •Fælles afleveringsformat og/eller udleveringsformat


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