Presentation on theme: "Language to Language C. Taylor"— Presentation transcript:
1 Language to Language C. Taylor Lexis and terminology (p. 21)
2 T R A N S L A T I O N Terms Words Ambiguous Polysemous Collocation-boundRegister-sensitiveTermsMonosemicInvariableOne-to-one relationship between language and realitye.g. multiple sclerosisContext - Co-textMeaningRight equivalentT R A N S L A T I O N
3 General LexisThe translator’s task is not simply a question of finding dictionary equivalents to a series of lexical items….…translators must be particularly sensitive to the meanings of the words on the page.
4 Bath=bagnoLa valle dei Pirenei, in cui si trovano i bagni termali di Vernet, non è molto conosciuta dai viaggiatori inglesi.Le calde acque termali di Vernet si trovano ai piedi del Canigou verso occidente in una valle isolata e chiusa.The Pyreneean valley in which the baths of Vernet are situated is not so much known to English travellers.Under the Canigou, towards the west, lie the hot baths of Vernet, in a close secluded valley.
5 The frequenters of these baths were a few years back gathered almost entirely from near towns… It was built immediately over one of the thermal springs, so that the water flowed from the bowels of the earth directly into the baths.Fino a pochi anni fa, i clienti di queste terme erano principalmente attratti da paesi vicini..Era costruito proprio a ridosso di una delle sorgenti termali in modo che l’acqua scorresse dalle viscere della terra direttamente nelle vasche.
6 Componential analysis A means of creating the complete semantic picture of a lexical item.It consists in breaking a word down into its components (man=male+human+adult) in order to arrive at its total meaning.A lexical item is a set or cluster of components (semantic features)
7 Function of componential analysis Once identified the semantic components of the lexical item, the ‘source word’ can be more easily translated through near-synonyms, paraphrase expressions, compensatory solutions or even replacement by zero, depending on the particular context of situation.
8 The Secret of Adrian Mole by Sue Townsend My mother and creep Lucas met at Sheffield. My mother looked dead thin and has started dressing in clothes that are too young for her. Lucas creep was wearing jeans. His belly was hanging over his belt. I pretended to be asleep until we got to Scotland. Lucas mauled my mother about whilst he was driving.
9 To maulEnglish/Italian dictionary: malmenare, maneggiare, bistrattare NO (Adrian is in the car)Monolingual dictionary: to handle sb/sth roughlly or brutallyDizionario sinonimi/contrari:coccolare= coccolare (grossolanamente)
10 False cognates/False friends Striking for the gentleStriking for the kind… (Bob Dylan)gentle= dolce, mite, moderato, lieve tenero,benevolo, garbato, cortese, elettoMonolingual dic: Never do any harm to anyoneRintoccavano per il mite, rintoccavano per il gentile
11 Collocation You shall know a word by the company it keeps Words grouping together
12 Fixed idioms: topsy-turvy predictable collocationsFlexible idioms: to rideA horseBicycleThe stormA crisisA problem
13 The patterns of collocation in one language are often not mirrored in another T R A N S L A T I O N P R O B L E MMangiano spaghetti si mangiano le unghieEat spaghetti bite their nailsTreni che fanno servizio.. Trains running..
14 …but there is a certain amount of equivalence Time flies il tempo volaDon’t look a gift horse in the mouthA caval donato non si guarda in bocca
15 Partial equivalence Ci mancherebbe altro What next Tutto il mondo è paeseIt’s the same world over
16 Irony in translation It’s just not cricket = Non è fair play National gameThe game of English gentlemenMataphor of fair play
17 Irony in translation It’s just not ice-hockey = Non è gioco sporco New gameViolent gameIt’s not fair play
18 Each langauge has its own set of collocations which must be taken into consideration for an appropriate translation