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Presentation on theme: "Guds eksistens ER DER GODE GRUNDE TIL AT TRO AT GUD FINDES?"— Presentation transcript:


2 1. DET ONTOLOGISKE BEVIS  Anselm : Vi kan ikke tænkes os et mere perfekt væsen end Gud og derfor må han findes.  Plantinga : Hvis det er muligt at maksimal storhed er eksemplificeret, så er denne egenskab nødvendigvis eksemplificeret.

3 1)Det er muligt at maksimal storhed er eksemplificeret 2)Der findes en mulig verden hvori maksimal storhed er eksemplificeret 3)Maksimal storhed er eksemplificeret i alle mulige verdener 4)Den aktuelle verden er en mulig verden 5)Maksimal storhed er eksemplificeret i den aktuelle verden 6)Gud findes

4 2. DET KOSMOLOGISKE BEVIS  Gammelt argument  Bibelsk resonans  Filosofisk argument  “Big Bang” indebærer at universet har en begyndelse ”it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize; they wondered originally at the obvious difficulties, then advanced little by little and stated difficulties about the greater matters, e.g. about the phenomena of the moon and those of the sun and the stars, and about the origin of the universe.” (Aristoteles, Metaphysics – part 2) 1) Everything that begins to exist, has a cause. 2) The universe began to exist. 3) Therefore the universe has a cause. (Kalaam Cosmological Argument – Craig)

5  Ancient argument  Biblical resonance  Philosophical argument  “Big Bang” shows universe had a beginning “The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims his handiwork. Day to day pours out speech, and night to night reveals knowledge. There is no speech, nor are there words, whose voice is not heard. Their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.” Ps 19:1-6 “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” Gen 1:1 “For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them.” Rom 1:19 2. DET KOSMOLOGISKE BEVIS

6  Ancient argument  Biblical resonance  Philosophical argument  “Big Bang” shows universe had a beginning 1) An actual infinity cannot exist. 1) A beginningless series of events in time entails an actual infinity. 2) If the universe doesn’t have a beginning it is a beginningless series of events in time 2) An actual infinity cannot be formed by adding one member after another. 1) The series of events in time is a collection formed by adding one member after another 2) If the universe doesn’t have a beginning, it has formed an actual infinit set of events by adding one member after another. 2. DET KOSMOLOGISKE BEVIS

7  Ancient argument  Biblical resonance  Philosophical argument  “Big Bang” shows universe had a beginning ”Can there be an infinite set of really existing universes? We suggest that, on the basis of well- known philosophical arguments, the answer is No.” ”The arguments against an infinite past time are strong – it’s simply not construcible in terms of events or instants of time, besides being conceptually indefinite.” (G.F.R. ellis, U.Kirchner, and W.R. Stoeger, ”Multiverse and Physical Cosmology”) 2. DET KOSMOLOGISKE BEVIS

8  Ancient argument  Biblical resonance  Philosophical argument  “Big Bang” shows universe had a beginning ”Of all the great predictions that science has ever made over the centuries … was there ever one greater than this, to predict correctly, and predict against all expectation a phenomenon so fantastic as the expansion of the universe.” (John A. Wheeler, ”Beyound the Hole”, 354) 2. DET KOSMOLOGISKE BEVIS

9 BIG BANG – STANDARD MODELEN Space Time  Begyndelsen på tid og rum for 13,7 mill år siden.  Intet fysisk eksisterer før singulariteten.


11 BEGYNDELSE PÅ TID OG RUM “If we extrapolate this prediction to its extreme, we reach a point when all distances in the universe have shrunk to zero. An initial cosmological singularity therefore forms a past temporal extremity to the universe. We cannot continue physical reasoning, or even the concept of spacetime, through such an extremity. For this reason most cosmologists think of the initial singularity as the beginning of the universe. On this view the big bang represents the creation event; the creation not only of all matter and energy in the universe, but also of spacetime itself.” (P.C.W.Davies, “Spacetime Singularity in Cosmology,” The Study of Time III. 78-79)

12 INTET FYSISK FINDES FØR SINGULARITETEN  ”At this singularity, space and time came into existence; literally nothing existed before the singularity, so, if the Universe originated at such a singularity, we would truly have a creation ex nihilo.”  (John Barrow and Frank Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, p.442)

13 Big Bangs forstyrrelse ”I feel almost an indignation that anyone should believe in it – except myself. … The beginning seems to present insuperable difficulties unless we agree to look on it as frankly supernatural.” (Arthur Eddington, The Expanding Universe, 1933, pp. 124)

14 What to say?  The big bang theory requires a recent origin of the Universe that openly invites the concept of creation.”(Fred Hoyle: The Intelligent Universe)  Compared to the alternative of supposing that matter and energy somehow always existed, British physicist Edmund Whittaker says, “It is simpler to postulate creation ex nihilo—Divine will constituting Nature from nothingness.”  “We do, of course, have an alternative. We could say that there was no creation, and that the universe has always been here. But this is even more difficult to accept than creation.”(Barry Parker)  “There is no doubt that a parallel exists between the big bang as an event and the Christian notion of creation from nothing.”(George Smoot)

15 3. DET TELEOLOGISKE ARGUMENT  Universet har et perfekt design og dets elementer indikerer hensigt og harmoni.  Variations: 1. Intelligent Design 2. Fine tuning in the universe: Anthropic Principle; “Goldilocks factor.”

16 Eksempler på fin tuning 1. Kosmologiske konstant Both Bradley and Collins report arguments that the cosmological constant must be fine-tuned to within one part in 10 50 for the Universe not to enter a runaway expansion phase early enough to prevent the formations of stars and galaxies. Wikipedia: 1:1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

17 Eksempler på fin tuning 2. Tyngdekraften Collins cites arguments (for example by Martin Rees) that if gravity were a billion times stronger than it is, no planet could support any significant ecosystem or civilization. He considers this fine-tuning on the grounds that "to the total range of strengths of the forces in nature (which span a range of 10 40 as we saw above), this still amounts to a one-sided fine-tuning of one part in 10 31 ".Wikipedia: Rees 1:100000000000000000000000000000000

18 What to say? “The laws of science, as we know them at present, contain many fundamental numbers, like the size of the electric charge of the electron and the ratio of the masses of the proton and the electron …. The remarkable fact is that the values of these numbers seem to have been finely adjusted to make possible the development of life.” Stephen Hawking

19 What to say? "A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with the physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question." Sir Fred Hoyle

20 What to say? "For the scientist who has lived by faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries.“ (God and the Astronomers) Robert Jastrow

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