Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sandro Nielsen Aarhus University Business and Social Sciences Centre for Lexicography.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sandro Nielsen Aarhus University Business and Social Sciences Centre for Lexicography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sandro Nielsen Aarhus University Business and Social Sciences Centre for Lexicography

2 Point of departure  Discussion of the theoretical foundation of online dictionaries on the basis of:  The Danish-English CISG Dictionary  UN C onvention on the I nternational S ale of G oods  Danish-English dictionary  Sub-field dictionary  Danish law students  Writing legal texts in English as a foreign language Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

3 The concept of dictionary Online dictionaries are complex tools:  Surface features  Those features that are visible to users in the two- dimensional space, i.e. on the screen  Underlying features  Those features that form the theoretical basis of dictionaries and that are not immediately visible to users Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

4 Underlying features Dictionaries have at least three underlying features:  they have been designed to fulfill one or more functions;  they contain data that have been selected because they help to fulfill their function(s);  they have structures that marshal the data into the task of fulfilling the relevant function(s). Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

5 The primacy of functions  A lexicographical function is ‘the satisfaction of the specific types of lexicographically relevant needs that may arise in a specific type of potential user in a specific type of extra-lexicographical situation.’ (Bergenholtz and Tarp 2010: 30)  Communicative functions provide help in ongoing or planned communicative situations  Cognitive functions provide help if people want to acquire knowledge about factual or linguistic matters Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

6 The EFL production dictionary EFL production dictionaries for law students are information tools which, through their surface and underlying features, provide help to law students who produce texts pertaining to the field of law in English as a foreign language. Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

7 Stages in EFL text production  Three stages:  a planning, an execution and a finalisation stage  Writing, editing and revising:  macro-level: concerns the relationship between paragraphs and larger units of text  micro-level: concerns words, collocations, phrases, sentences, and textual conventions Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

8 User profiling  Danish law students:  Master the Danish language at a high level  Master English as a foreign language at a medium level  Experience in producing legal texts in English at a low level  General cultural and factual knowledge at a medium level  Master the subject field of Danish law at a low level  Master the subject field of English law at a low level (or nil)  Master Danish legal language at a low level  Master English legal language at a low level Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

9 Producing EFL texts  Writers think exclusively in native language and translate into foreign language  Writers think partly in native language and translate into foreign language, think partly in foreign language and write directly in foreign language  Writers think in foreign language and write exclusively in foreign language Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

10 Surface features  Homepage  Welcome text  Search page – entry word  Advanced search – strings of words  List of all entry words  User guide  Links to relevant texts Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

11 Data fields: lemma + equivalent  Danish lemma  Grammar note - Danish lemma  Word class indication - Danish lemma  Meaning discrimination – Danish lemma  English equivalent  Grammar note – English equivalent  Contrastive note – Danish lemma and English equivalent Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

12 Data fields: strings of words  Danish collocations  English translations of Danish collocations  Danish short phrases  English translations of Danish short phrases  Danish long phrases  English translations of Danish long phrases Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

13 Basis for data selection  The selection of data in online production dictionaries should be based on the concept of relevance.  Relevance is defined as the quality of being directly connected with the subject field in question, the production function of the dictionary, and the production situation in which the dictionary is intended to be used. Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011

14 Search option 1: Show all DanskEngelskFaglig markeringDetaljer acceptacceptanceKlik her acceptereacceptKlik her acceptfristperiod for acceptanceKlik her acceptmeddelelsenotice of acceptanceKlik her adfærdconductKlik her adgangopportunitymulighedKlik her adgangrightrettighedKlik her Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 Meaning discrimination Click here

15 Full article adgangright Discrimination: rettighed Date: Note: Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 Collocations adgang til at modregne: right to set-off; adgang til modregning: right of set-off; Short phrases miste adgangen til at hæve købet: lose the right to declare the contract avoided; Long phrases køber mister adgangen til at påberåbe sig manglen ved varen: the buyer loses his right to rely on a lack of conformity of the goods;

16 Search option 2: headword Search for headword Danish > English Type Danish word and click search Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 sælger search

17 Search headword: example Search result Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 DanskEngelskFaglig markeringDetaljer genussælgerseller of generic goodsKlik her speciessælgerseller of specific goodsKlik her sælgersellerKlik her

18 Search option 3: advanced Advanced search Search collocations Type Danish word and click search Search short phrases Type Danish word and click search Search long phrases Type Danish word and click search Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 ejendomsret search seach

19 Advanced search: example Search result (Search in short phrases + search word: ejendomsret) Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 DanskEngelskHele opslag ejendomsretten til den solgte varethe property in the goods soldKlik her ejendomsretten til den solgte varethe property in the goods soldKlik her ejendomsretten til varenthe property in the goodsKlik her forbeholde sig ejendomsrettenreserve (the) propertyKlik her overdrage ejendomsretten til varentransfer the property in the goodsKlik her Whole entry

20 Note on grammar  Danish plural: leveringsbetingelser Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 leveringsbetingelseterm of delivery plural = terms of delivery

21 Note on grammar retsmiddelremedy plural = remedies Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 renteinterest ’interest’ is always singular sælgesell past tense = sold

22 Contrastive note Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 debitormorafailure in the performance of an obligation Note: English (UK) and American (US) law have no direct equivalent to the Danish concept. The expression ’failure in the performance of an obligation’ is a suggested translation covering the meaning of the Danish term ’debitormora’. lovact; statute Note: The term ’act’ is always used to refer to a specific enactment, while the term ’statute’ is used in general contexts. In titles and references to a specific enactment a capital initial letter is used: Act.

23 Contrastive note erstatningdamages ’damages’ is always plural Note: Unlike the Danish term ’erstatning’, the English term ’damages’ is always plural. In US English the term ’damages’ is occassionally used in the meaning ’harm’ [’damage’], which is not correct in UK English. Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011 sagsøgerclaimant Discrimination: litigation UK Note: The international literature has a tendency to use the US term ’plaintiff’ unless reference is made to specific UK contexts. Sometimes it is more appropriate to translate ’sagsøger’ into ’seller’ if the party is a seller or ’buyer’ if the party is a buyer and the context does not require the specification of the role ’sagsøger’.

24 Possible extensions  For users who write through their native language:  Search: in Danish data  On-screen presentation: Danish + English data as well as Danish meta data  For users who write directly in the foreign language:  Search: in English data  On-screen presentation: English data as well as Danish meta data Sandro Nielsen, 8 April 2011


Download ppt "Sandro Nielsen Aarhus University Business and Social Sciences Centre for Lexicography."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google