Presentation on theme: " Hate C rimes A gainst W omen in the Turkish P ress: H onour K illings Yasem i n İ nceo ğ lu 1."— Presentation transcript:
Hate C rimes A gainst W omen in the Turkish P ress: H onour K illings Yasem i n İ nceo ğ lu 1
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights indicates that everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person (Article 3) and no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. (Article 5). 2
Ideological Function of the Media Media have an important ideological function in constructing of the meaning. Personalisation : Personal stories, excluded of societal context Dramat isation Normalisation Othering Sexualism is an ideological discourse of the media.
Women Representations in the Media Especially, moral cultural codes are in the agenda of the media. Thus, media produce it’s own reality in continuity. Third Page Object ( Victim or Murderer ) Sexual Object Mother, wife, devoted woman A ctivist Equal representation with men MEDYADA KADINLARIN TEMSİL BİÇİMLERİ ARAŞTIRMASI (H. UGUR TANRIÖVER VE DiĞERLERi : 2008)
Violence Against Women in the Media I Media considers violence not as a social problem but as a judicial event; 87% of news publish photos of the victim instead of the assailant taking a second swing at the victim. 9.1% is introduced on the first page and sensationalised in the 3rd page. Whereas bodily injuries in women like “broken arms, black eyes, crashed head” are included in the news with a ratio of 13.7%, concepts related to psychological damage like “stress, depression and nervous breakdown” are mentioned only in 2.9% of news. Mine Gencel Bek-A bdulrezzak Altun, ”Gazete Haberlerinde Aile İçi Şiddet Araştırması, Ankara Üniversitesi, İletişim Fakültesi, 2009.
Violence Against Women in the Media II Media uses a sexist news language. Instead of judging the criminal or crime, media attempts to judge the woman that is the victim of the crime under sexist prejudices. Media makes the crimes against women a material of magazine and transforms them into rating/surveillance material in a way to feed pornographic voyeurism..
Some Examples of News Head Lines in the Main Stream Media DECISION OF FAMILY COUNCIL MOTHER YOU DISHONOURED US KILLED DAUGHTER BECAUSE SHE WAS NOT A VIRGIN I KILLED HER BECAUSE SHE WORE A T- SHIRT AND A WHITE TIGHT 7
Nuran, a 14 years old girl was kidnapped, raped, the police saved her and delivered her to her family. But she was killed with the decision of the family council. THIS IS NOT CUSTOM THIS IS ATROCITY 10
END SEXUALISM IN THE MEDIA!!! Some notes from Media Watch Group (MEDİZ)’s book “End the sexualism in the Media" ; The chief executives in the media; 15% women, 85 % men; 12% of columnists are women, 88% are men The participators in the political debate programmes in TV stations: 11% women, 89% men; BUT, 100% of Cover girls are women and 0% of them are men“!!!
Somebody committing a crime under the excuse of honour benefits unjust provocation discount under Article 29 of the Turkish Penal Code. According to this article, “a person that commits a crime under rage and intense pain caused by a wrongful act is sentenced to imprisonment from 18 years to 24 years instead of life sentence, and from 12 years to 18 years instead of life sentence”. In other cases, one third or one fourth of the sentence is forgiven. 13 UNJUST ‘UNJUST PROVOCATION’
REDUCED SENTENCE OF“COQUETR Y” TO THE WIFE KILLER 14
WHAT IS A HATE CRIME? Hate crimes (also known as bias-motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation.social groupracial groupreligionsexual orientationdisabilityclassethnicity nationalityagegendergender identity political affiliation
What is an honour-killing? An honor killing or honour killing (also called a customary killing) is the murder of a (typically female) family or clan member by one or more fellow (mostly male) family members, in which the perpetrators (and potentially the wider community) believe the victim to have brought dishonour upon the family, clan, or community. The perceived dishonor is normally the result of the following behaviors, or the suspicion of such behaviors: (a) utilizing dress codes unacceptable to the family/community, (b) wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice, or (c) engaging in certain sexual acts, including those with the opposite or same sex.murder dishonour
Customs and Honour Killings Whereas those committing enthusing murders with the cause of customs are penalised, those committing honour killing unfortunately are not penalised in the same manner. In the end, women are condemned to death under the understanding of honour of the society. This legitimises violence and insulting acts against women. Language of news is intolerant and negative. Press acts within some restrictions, values and prejudices. Selection of words like execution, blood, revenge, hail of bullets encourages violence and individual armament. Crime of the criminal is diminished, and the victim is introduced in such a way that almost she deserved that assault/death (Bianet, Kadın Odaklı Habercilik,Hak Haberciliği Dizisi II, 2008).
Customs and Honour Killings Distribution According to Cities Total Number in the Last 5 Years 19
The Distribution of Customs and Honour Killings According to the Causes Sexual Abuse %6 Rape %2 Honour %33 Unknown %16 Vendetta %7 Customs %2 Intrafamilial dispute %23 Forbidden liaison %9 Intermarriage %7 20
Survey Results ( 430 People) % 78 Men % 22 Women How must the woman be punished for an extra-marital Affair ? % 37.4 Must be Killed % 21.6 CUTTING OF EAR&NOSE, SHAVING THE HEAD, POISONİNG, FORCING TO COMMIT SUICIDE WHO WILL PUNISH ? % 64 Husband Whose advice should be taken? % 41.6 Eldest Family Members DİCLE ÜN.TIP FAKÜLTESİ PSİKİYATRİ ANABİLİM DALI,PROF.DR.AYTEKİN SIR’IN YÖNETTİĞİ ANKET ÇALIŞMASI 21
“Turkish Journalists Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities ” quotes ; “The journalist defends the universal values of humanity, chiefly peace, democracy and human rights, pluralism and display respect for differences. Without any discrimination against nations, races, ethnicities, classes, sexes, languages, religious and philosophical beliefs, the journalist recognizes the rights and respectability of all nations, peoples and individuals. The journalist refrains from publishing material that incites enmity and hatred among individuals, nations and human societies. The journalist should not make the target of direct attack the cultural values or beliefs (or lack of beliefs) of any human society or of an individual. The journalist should publish or broadcast material that justifies or incites violence of any kind”. 23
Conclusion In order that women may increase their awareness and use their rights, everything, from family relationships to educational system, from the male dominated perspective to religion and all that has this point of view, must be restructured. Men must also be educated alongside with women; female issues must be more frequently examined by female journalists without neglecting their sensitivities. Media executives must refuse and avoid to be defeated by populism (voice of the people – voice of justice / Turkish people want it this way) and the monster of circulation – rating. Thus, instead of the “femme fatale – sexy women” typing we are so used to in the recent years, we may be able to watch women with their successes in art and culture, politics and sports, but not with their physical beauties. In this matter, newspaper readers, TV audience, that is all news consumers, non-governmental organisations, and academics must fulfil their duty in monitoring and criticising media. Mediz is a very successful example for this.