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การบูรณาการสารสนเทศทรัพยากร และสิ่งแวดล้อม

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Presentation on theme: "การบูรณาการสารสนเทศทรัพยากร และสิ่งแวดล้อม"— Presentation transcript:

1 การบูรณาการสารสนเทศทรัพยากร และสิ่งแวดล้อม
พ.อ. ดร. กนก วีรวงศ์ และ ดร. พรเทพ อนุสสรนิติสาร มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์

2 ข้อมูลสารสนเทศคืออะไร
ชุดข้อมูลที่มีความสัมพันธ์กันที่ถูกเก็บ วิเคราะห์ สังเคราะห์ และแจกจ่ายเพื่อสนับสนุนการตัดสินใจในการดำเนินการขององค์กร (Rockart & Short, Sloan management review, 1989) ข้อมูล (Data): ชุดข้อมูลดิบที่แสดงให้เห็นถึงสภาพของเหตุการณ์ ข้อมูลสารสนเทศ (Information): กลุ่มของข้อมูลที่แสดงอยู่ในรูปแบบที่ช่วยให้ผู้ใช้เข้าใจถึงสถานะการณ์และสามารถตัดสินใจได้ดีขึ้น Information system Data Information

3 ตัวอย่าง: ข้อมูลจากสายการผลิต
ข้อมูลดิบ ข้อมูลสารสนเทศ GearAX 183 GearAX 205 ShaftTY-A 165 BoxTY-AB . ITEM DESCRIPTION Customer ID Cust. Name GearAX C ACE Assy. TODAY SHIPPED YTD SHIP 1, ,000 ข้อมูลดิบได้ถูกประมวลผลที่อยู่ในรูปที่มีนัยยะสำคัญ อาทิ YTD (ยอดขายทั้งหมด 1 ปีจากปัจจุบัน)

4 ระบบสารสนเทศเป็นมากกว่า….. ระบบคอมพิวเตอร์
People Structure Operating procedures Politics Cultures Hardware Software Storage tech. Communication tech. ORGANIZATIONS TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT Senior manager Middle manager Operational manager Strategy Policy

5 พัฒนาการของระบบสารสนเทศ
กรอบการดำเนินการที่เกี่ยวข้องกับองค์กรขยายตัวไปเรื่อยๆ และสนับสนุนการเชื่อมโยงต่อองค์กรต่างๆ Source: Management Information Systems, 8th Edition, Laudon & Laudon, 2004 Supplier’s supplier Suppliers Factory Distributors Customer = physical flow = information flow

6 พัฒนาการของระบบสารสนเทศ
Increasing interdependence between organizations and information systems Changes in strategy, rules, and procedures increasingly require change in hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications Databases Business strategy interdependence Software Hardware Rules Telecom. Procedures

7 Types of information systems
Organization can be viewed in 3 major areas: 1) Strategic 2) Knowledge 3) Operations Source: Management Information Systems, 8th Edition, Laudon & Laudon, 2004

8 Transaction Processing Systems (TPS):
Basic business systems that serve the operational level A computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business

9 Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
Knowledge level Inputs: Design specs Processing: Modeling Outputs: Designs, graphics Users: Technical staff and professionals Example: Engineering work station

10 Management Information System (MIS)
Management level Inputs: High volume data Processing: Simple models Outputs: Summary reports Users: Middle managers Example: Annual budgeting Structured and semi-structured decisions Report control oriented Past and present data Internal orientation Lengthy design process

11 Decision Support System (DSS)
Management level Inputs: Low volume data Processing: Interactive Outputs: Decision analysis Users: Professionals, staff Example: Product tracking

12 DSS example Contract cost analysis

13 Decision making process & Information systems
MIS, ESS DSS TPS DSS MIS

14 Data Warehouse in Enterprise system
Improved and easy accessibility to information Ability to model and remodel the data

15 Data warehouse & its components
Supports reporting and query tools Stores current and historical data Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making

16 Business Intelligence
Business intelligence (BI) is a broad category of applications and techniques for gathering, storing, analyzing and providing access to data. It help’s enterprise users make better business and strategic decisions. Major applications include the activities of query and reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), DSS, data mining, forecasting and statistical analysis. Business intelligence includes: outputs such as financial modeling and budgeting resource allocation coupons and sales promotions Seasonality trends Benchmarking (business performance) competitive intelligence.

17 Business Intelligence Continued
How It Works.

18 What BI is Not BI is not a silver bullet
It will not lower your IT costs It will not allow you to cut resource requirements It will not fix bad data models, poor system design or data problems It is not a product and it cannot be bought

19 BI Implementation Challenges
Getting data into a warehouse is only half of the equation complete solution for data flow mgmt simple navigation (what data & where?) tools for access & manipulation representation Quote example: What were those famous words JFK utter about the space program/getting to the moon? "...To get a man to the moon and return him safely before the end of the decade..."

20 BI Implementation Challenges
What is the quality of the data in the BI? What are the definitions of the data elements? How current should the data be? How can you correlate BI data to operational data? What is the physical size of a BI? What hw/sw should be used? QUALITY: What is the data source? From an operational system? If so, what are integrity rules? (data entry control) ETL? Transformation rules, DQ cleansing/aggregating... CORRELATE DW DATA... : common nomenclature - CUST_NM = COMPANY_NAME DW SIZE?: Retention policy - current month details, historical summaries HW/SW?: Scalability!! Incremental design Access & output requirements will drive configuration

21 Business Activity Monitoring Systems (BAM)
Real time systems monitoring specific facility Detects opportunities, problems, and threats Modeling function for solutions Collaboration Fast response Benefits Recognizing and responding to events Allows for quick resolution Issues Senior management support Change in business processes Requires identification of CSFs and proper analytical techniques

22 Translating data into decision
Information Knowledge Insight Data Actions Decision

23 Enterprise Dashboards
Everyone knows that we cannot manage what you cannot measure. However, that you cannot manage well what you cannot monitor

24 Evolution of data reporting
EPM = Enterprise performance Management BAM = Business Activity Monitoring

25 Dashboard concept A concept driven from aircraft & automobile to enterprise It is used to monitor and drive a complex independent system Manager, like pilots, need instrumentation about many aspects of their environment and performance to monitor the journey toward excellent future outcomes (Kaplan & Norton, 1996)

26 ตัวอย่างของ MOC

27 ตัวอย่าง War room Operation Room (คิดว่าดีกว่า)

28 Dashboard design concept
SMART Synergetic: must be ergonomically and visually effective for user Monitor KPIs: must display critical KPIs required for decision making Accurate: Info must be entirely accurate in order to gain user confidence Responsive: must respond (alert) to predefined threshold to draw immediate user attention (e.g. alarm, , SMS etc.) Timely: must display the most current info. possible for making effective decison

29 Dashboard design concept
IMPACT Interactive: allow user to drill down and get to detail, root causes and more More data history: allow user to review historical trend and pattern for a given KPIs Personalized Analytical: what-if analysis, Forecasting etc. Collaborative Trackability: allow each user to customize the KPIs or any info. he/she would like to track

30 Example: Interactive & analytical
Profitability analysis (Source:

31 Ex: Decision Model

32 Ex: Decision Model

33 Common dashboard misperception
For senior executive only (Wrong!) Everyone in organization making decision (should be better decision) For report distribution only (Wrong!) Instant info Real time analytical info

34 Develop enterprise dashboard
Development of dashboard should be mapped along the answers to the following three questions What information?  KPIs For whom?  Personalized view How to present?  Design

35 Element of KPI Theses elements together define scope and illuminate the different facets of a particular KPI Information of these element needs to be complied in order to get a clear picture of each KPI

36 Data sources (1 of 4 KPI elements)
EDW: Enterprise dataware house, CRM: Customer relationship Management, ERP: Enterprise resource planning e.g SAP/R3

37 Granularity (1 of 4 KPI elements)
Granularity set the levels of calculations required for each KPIs Basic dimensions of KPI: Time Geography Products

38 Example: Multinational Automotive Company
Gross Revenue (GR): A very common KPI that is required across every granular combination of the three basic dimensions within an organization. Some possible grains for this KPI are: KPI Time Geography Product GR YTD (Year-to-Date) Worldwide Company Total Current Month Latest Week YTD USA SUVs Total Trucks Total Cars Total USA-East Brand Series 3 Total Brand Series 5 Total

39 Example: Customer Service Organization in USA
Percent Resolution (% Res): The percentage of complaints resolved through customer service personnel, a critical KPI required across all granularity within the business. Some KPI grains are as follows: KPI Time Geography Product %Res YTD USA Company Total Current Month Latest Week USA-East Server Support Laptop Support PC Support USA-NY NY-NY City

40 Calculation (1 of 4 KPI elements)
Calculation would indicate formula of the KPIs The most used calculations of the KPI for single data source are: sum, average, percentage, max, min, moving average etc. Ratios KPI usually derived from various data sources: Percent resolution: Sum of all successful resoultions x 100 / (sum of all customer calls)

41 Variance Variance establishes the comparison benchmark for each KPI
It has two requirements The basis for change Change calculation Most common references for basis are: Periodic comparisons: year ago, month ago Forecast, Operational plan, quota etc. Common change calculation Difference, percentage change, Percent point change

42 Framework to map KPI KPI Data Source Name Report Universe/Cube
Database Other Granularity Time Geography Product Calculation Formula Additive Variance Basis Calculation Threshold Lower Middle Upper Alert Action Recipient(s)

43 After KPIs Thresholds Alerts Hierarchies
They are parameters set by the organization to evaluate performance Alerts They are actions once a KPI threshold is reached, however alerts are not defined for every threshold boundary Hierarchies A organization-specific structure for rollups that correspond to the management

44 KPI threshold Knowing the values of KPI and their variances related to it still does not give us the business bottom line: Is it good, bad or just OK? KPI thresholds are the units of information that used by dashboard to monitor for EPM (enterprise performance management) and BAM (business activity monitoring)

45 Example

46 Example: KPI thresholds
Revenue change Excellent: over 10% increase for YTD against a year ago Good: 5-10% increase for YTD against a year ago OK: 0-5% increase for YTD against a year ago Poor: up to 5% decrease for YTD against a year ago Extremely poor: over 5% decrease for YTD against a year ago Percentage resolution for customer service Excellent: over 90% resolution for latest month Good: 80-90% resolution for latest month OK: 75-80% resolution for latest month Poor: below 75% resolution for latest month

47 Alerts They are actions once a KPI threshold is reached, however alerts are not defined for every threshold boundary They serve as a warning system when KPI shows poor performance or undesired trend Alerts must provide “attention-capturing action” e.g. alarm, , SMS etc. Alerts promote “management by exception”

48 Example: Alerts Alert shown on a user screen when KPI thresholds exceed defined parameters

49 Hierarchies Each of dimensions of granularity has its own hierarchy
Often, organization have multiple hierarchies for the same granular dimension Finance: year, quarter, month Operations: week and day

50 Example: Multiple hierarchies in geography

51 Example: Multiple hierarchies in product

52 For whom? Audience

53 How to present? Design Layout Navigation Screen graphic & colors
Selection of appropriate chart type Animation with relevance Optimal content placement Layout Screen resolution Context selection Navigation Tab & pivots Context drill down

54 Example: Enterprise performance dashboard
Courtesy: Business Objects

55 Example: Enterprise performance dashboard
Courtesy: Microstrategy

56 Ex. Divisional dashboard: SCM

57 Human resource dashboard

58 Manufacturing dashboard

59 Conclusion Corporate Strategy Management Senior management Operations management Operations KPIs Reports/ Dashboards External factors Dashboards are need when speed of information is critical!!!


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