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Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 1 Jacob Thøgersen, University of Copenhagen Jan Heegård, Copenhagen Business School Changes.

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Presentation on theme: "Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 1 Jacob Thøgersen, University of Copenhagen Jan Heegård, Copenhagen Business School Changes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 1 Jacob Thøgersen, University of Copenhagen Jan Heegård, Copenhagen Business School Changes in linguistic style as a consequence of changing media norms Reductions as an indicator of ‘vernacularization’?

3 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 2 Why investigate language change in the national broadcast media  Media language reflects language norms  Media language affect our language norms Background Denmark had (has?) a broadcast monopoly (DR) •Established 1925 with strong national and educational aims •Focus on ’proper’ language in particular in ’serious’ programs like the news. ’Proper’ language as a sign of credibility.  DR reflect language ideals and disseminate language ideals

4 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 3 Grand questions •How does the style of the radio news, i.e. the standard of excellence, change over time? •How do these stylistic changes correlate with changes in media norms?

5 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 4 Media norms 1940 & From enlightenment to infotainment The National Broadcasting Company was established to connect with all households in the country […]. A state institution was created, free from speculation, advertising and private interests, an institution intended solely to serve country and people and to act as a link to the outside world. (Then prime minister Thorvald Stauning, in Breidahl & Rée’s book in celebration of DR’s 15th anniversary, 1940:5) Precisely in a time which is more fragmented than ever before, where we use more media than ever before and gather our information and find our experiences in far more sources than ever before, there is a need that we are also supplied with a common platform. (Then minister of cultural affairs Per Stig Møller, DR’s Public service contract, 2010)  Can we see the results of these changing ideals in the style of the language of the media?

6 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 5 Style changes: Independent evidence ’Non-linguistic’ changes in news reading style, speed, pauses etc.: •News readings •Only the actual reading of news, not e.g. interviews or reports from correspondents • ≈ 7.6 hours ≈ 50 programs ≈ 70,000 words

7 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 6 Style changes: Increasing speed •The speaking rate and articulation rate increase noticeably •Fewer and shorter pauses (cf. Thøgersen 2001)

8 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 7 Reductions as ’improper’ media language Even for leading Danish media people the rushed times we live in often impede clarity. This is mainly due to the omnipresent cutting disease [i.e. ‘cutting off syllables’] or syllable cannibalism. In the whirling tempo of the times, smaller or even larger percentages of the words are lost. We see for instance how billeder becomes /bedlå/, stearin becomes /sdaRI;N/, teater /tadå/, parentes /pangTE;S/. In all four examples, one of three syllables is lost. The cannibal swallows 33 %. (Prof. Peder Skyum-Nielsen, 2007) Thøgersen, forthc.

9 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 8 Style changes: Reductions Changes in the frequency of reductions in the reading style: •News readings •Only the actual reading of news, not e.g. interviews or reports from correspondents • ≈ 6 hours ≈ 38 programs ≈ 53,000 words

10 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 9 Syllable, consonant and schwa reductions Variable(də)(əðə)(ŋə) Variants mensd ̥ ə/mensdl ɑ məðə/l ɑ məðg ̊ɑ ŋə/g ̊ɑ ŋ ̩ Orthographymindstelammedegange Type(syll.) (schwa) 9 listeners / 3 variables Variable(mə)(pretonics)(cluster) (C ʁ ) (gd)(VgV) Variants sd ̥ɛ mə/ sd ̥ɛ m ̩ ɑ me ʁ i ˈ k ɑ nsg ̊ ə/ ɑ m ʁ i ˈ k ɑ nsg ̊ ə pilo ːˀ d ̥ sd ̥ʁɑɪ g ̊ ə/ pilo ːˀ sd ̥ɑɪ g ̊ ə ɑ nd ̥ʁɑ / ɑ nd ̥ɑ ʁ æ ˈ sb ̥ɛ g ̊ d ̥ / ʁ æ ˈ sb ̥ɛ χd ̥ t ʁ̥ œg ̊ɐʁˈ i ːˀ / t ʁ̥ œ ɣɐʁˈ i ːˀ Orthographystemmeamerikanskepilotstrejkeandrerespekttrykkeri Type(schwa)(syll.)(cons.) 2 listeners / 6 variables

11 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 10 Method •Words in isolation (total n ≈ 3800) •Automatic extraction of tokens based on (automatically generated) phonological transcription •Using Praat •Forced-choice form: Reduced or not? with ”N/A” to report errors. (N/A’s excluded in statistics) •Slightly different tasks: semantic (past. vs partc. / sing. vs. plur.) or phonetic differentiation •Each token scored as the number of listeners who heard it as reduced, 0-2 or 0-9  ’reduction score’ •Mean scores per decade: ’index’ (0-2 or 0-9)

12 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 11 Results: Increase in the degree of reductions (d ə )( ə ð ə ) *(ŋ ə ) *

13 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 12 (m ə ) *(pretonic) (clusters) * Results: Increase in the degree of reductions

14 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 13 (gd)(VgV) * (C ʁ ) * Results: Increase in the degree of reductions

15 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 14 Reductions as style indicator: Conclusion •More reductions  ’vernacularization’ •Some variables show a somewhat linear development: ( ə ð ə ), (ŋ ə ), (clusters), (C ʁ ), (pretonics) •Some show little development: (d ə ), (gd) •Some show a large difference between old (30s, 40s) and later: (ŋ ə ), (m ə ) •Some show erratic development: (m ə ), (VgV) •Noise in the experiment? •Variation in individual speakers  due to salience leading to corrections?  DR’s news reading style becomes more like the vernacular, but is it like the vernacular?

16 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 15 (d ə )(əðə)(əðə)(ŋ ə )(m ə ) (pretonics)(cluster) (C ʁ ) (gd)(VgV) Radio news3.5%40.0%35.6%32.6%7.4%43.9%69.3%38.0%71. 1% DanPASS7.3%74.0%74.4%61.3%31.1%40.5%30.8%23.3%73.5% p (chi 2 )0.05< n.s.< n.s. Lanchart54.5% % 2 p (chi 2 )< Reductions – Compared with corpora of spontaneous spoken Danish Radio news • After 1980 • Only tokens where both listeners agreed on the coding DanPASS (Danish Phonetically Annotated Spontaneous Speech) • Map-tasks in experimental set-up (≈ 10 hours) • Forms annotated as reduced in the authorized transcription Lanchart: Sociolinguistic interviews 1) (≈ 15 hours), 2) 1 long interview with 2 informants (≈ 2 hours)

17 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 16 Conclusion •Increasing frequency of reducions  ’vernacularization’ •the intrusion of ‘improper’ language in the serious media •Still perceived as ’proper’ language  ’demotization’ • improper language accepted as proper language •Changes in articulation rate and reductions as a consequence of new media norms? •The era of ’good-enough’ •Not all reductions are equally frequent  Categorically different phenomena: Some are phonologized, others are indicators of casual style? Some are salient (at some times), others are not? •News reading style (still) differs markedly from spontaneous speech. How great was this difference earlier?

18 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 17 Style changes - Speed

19 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 18 Consonant reductions Variable(də)(əðə)(ŋə) Examplemindstelammedegange Variants mensd ̥ ə/mensd ̩ l ɑ məðə/l ɑ məð ̩ g ̊ɑ ŋə/g ̊ɑ ŋ ̩ n620/ / α listeners / 3 variables Variable(me)(pretonics)(cluster)(Cr)(gd)(VgV) Examplestemmeamerikanskepilotstrejkeandrerespekttrykkeri Variants sd ̥ɛ mə/ sd ̥ɛ m ̩ ɑ me ʁ i ˈ k ɑ nsg ̊ ə/ ɑ m ʁ i ˈ k ɑ nsg ̊ ə pilo ːˀ d ̥ sd ̥ʁɑɪ g ̊ ə/ pilo ːˀ sd ̥ɑɪ g ̊ ə ɑ nd ̥ʁɑ / ɑ nd ̥ɑ ʁ æ ˈ sb ̥ɛ g ̊ d ̥ / ʁ æ ˈ sb ̥ɛ χd ̥ t ʁ̥ œg ̊ɐʁˈ i ːˀ / t ʁ̥ œ ɣɐʁˈ i ːˀ n α listeners / 6 variables

20 Sted og dato (Indsæt --> Diasnummer) Dias 19 Consonant reductions - Results (d ə )(əðə)(əðə)(ŋ ə )


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