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Fahmuddin Agus Indonesian Soil Research Institute Jln. Juanda 98, Bogor 16123, Indonesia REDD-plus after Cancun: Moving from Negotiation to Implementation.

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Presentation on theme: "Fahmuddin Agus Indonesian Soil Research Institute Jln. Juanda 98, Bogor 16123, Indonesia REDD-plus after Cancun: Moving from Negotiation to Implementation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fahmuddin Agus Indonesian Soil Research Institute Jln. Juanda 98, Bogor 16123, Indonesia REDD-plus after Cancun: Moving from Negotiation to Implementation Building REDD-plus Policy Capacity for Developing Country Negotiators and Land Managers May 2011, Hanoi, Vietnam

2  Introduction  Indonesian agriculture  Actions to achieve sustainable agriculture and reduce emissions, and supporting policies needed  Conclusions

3 Source:

4 Source:

5  Area almost constant, intensification in rice and maize  Susceptible to extreme climate conditions (drought, flood) and indirect effects entailed (pest and diseases)  The main indicator for food security and affect social and political stability

6 Source:

7 Source: Dir. General of Estate crops (2010) Low yld (1-2 t/ha/yr) High Yield (3.6 t PO/ha/yr)

8 PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL, Source: Dir. General of Estate crops GE (2010)

9 EXPORT OF PALM OIL Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) Export volume

10 Source: Agus et al (on-going study, unpublished)

11  Oil palm plantation area increases very rapidly.  Generate foreign exchange earning  Supports regional development, especially in Sumatera and Kalimantan islands  A driver of LUC  OP plantation provides employment to more than 3.5 millions households (as workers and farmers) or about 15 million people

12 Without LUCF With LUCF Source: MoE, 2009Sector Gg CO2e •Energy 280,938- •Industry 42,815- •Agriculture 75,420- •Land Use Change and Forestry (excl. peat fire) 649,254- •Peat Fire 172,000- •Waste 157,328- •Total without LUCF 535,730- •Total with LUCF(incl.peat fire) 1356,984- Agriculture in GHG Emissions

13 13 SectorER target Emisi (Giga ton CO2e) Action planImplementers 26%15% Forestry and peatland Waste management Agriculture Industry Energy and transportatio n Fire control, water mgmt, land and forest rehab, forest plantation, community forest, control of illegal logging, avoided defor, capacity building Waste management, handling and recycling Introduction of low CH4 emission varieties, water use efficiency, organic fertilizer Energy efficiency, use of renewable energy. Use of biofuel, more efficient engines, improvement of infrastructure, etc MoF, MoE, PoPW, MoA MoPW, PoE MoA, MoE M0I&T MoTransportation, MoE&Minaral, MoP Source: MoE, 2009 From REDD+ to REDD++ or REALU

14  Avoided deforestation  Control of peat fire  Use of ameliorant  Water table control: as shallow as possible to the level that does not detriment plant growth  Prioritization of the use of drained peat shrubs for plantation development

15  Rehabilitation/utilization of Imperata grassland and shrubland for tree-based farming  Soil organic matter management: minimum tillage, organic matter recycling, use of biochar

16 0~250 t C/ha Processes entailed in peat forest conversion 60 cm (2) Soil C oxidation t C/ha (1) Change in time average C stock Peat subsidence (peat) t C/m/ha in peat soil t C/ha in surface of mineral soil (3) Peat (soil) burning

17 Land use Peat forestShrubOil palm Rubber/ AFSawahMaize Pine- apple Vege- table Peat forest Shrub Oil palm 32xxxxx Rubber/AF 16xxxx Sawah 5xxx Maize 53xx Pineapple 19x Vegetable 16

18 Source: Agus et al. (2009)

19

20 Area (ha)At least 1.3 Mha Assumptions 1. Emission decrease 5,4 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 with 10 cm reduction in drainage depth, 2. This technology can be implemented on at least 25% of plantation on peatland by Estimated emission reduction (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) 1,770,353 Supporting policy needed • Extension on sustainable peatland management

21 Area 1) (ha) 17,297,294 (MoE, 2009) Assumptions 2% of the shrubland with <30 t C/ha can be converted to plantation with about 40 t C/ha (time average) annually Estimated emission reduction (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) 12,696,214 Supporting policy needed • Evaluation of land suitability • Clearance of land status into “APL” if it’s in conversion forest and production forest • Clearance of multiple claims/tenures, if any • Evaluation of labour availability • Provision of funds, quality planting materials (for smallholders) for the establishment and maintenance until the system produces

22 Area 1) (ha) 6,194,949 (MoE, 2009) Assumptions 2% of the bareland (2 t C/ha) can be converted to tree based systems (40 t C/ha) Estimated emission reduction (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) 17,278,952 Supporting policy needed • Evaluation of land suitability • Clearance of land status into “APL” if it’s in conversion forest and production forest • Clearance of multiple claims/tenures, if any • Evaluation of labor availability • Provision of funds for the establishment and maintenance until the system produces

23 Area 1) (ha) 10,536,523 (MoE, 2009) Assumptions This option is implemented on 2% of the total area to increase SOC from the average of 80 t ha -1 to 88 t ha -1 (time average) Estimated emission reduction (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) 3,093,523 Supporting policy needed Technical guidance of the use and benefits of locally available organic matter

24 Area 1) (ha) ? Assumptions Area for swapping is available within same district, seems too complicated across districts Estimated emission reduction (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) - Supporting policy needed • Clearance of the status of the substitute land into “APL” • Change in land status of the high C land bank to conservation area • Clearance of multiple claims/tenures, if any • Evaluation of labour availability

25 NAMA-LAMA Estimated ER by 2020 (t CO 2 -e yr -1 ) Avoid deep drainage on peatland1,770,353 Water management, variety on paddy field 8,000,000 Rehabilitation of shrubland 12,696,214 Rehabilitation of Imperata grassland17,278,952 Organic matter management on annual upland 3,093,523 TOTAL 42,839,042

26  Emission factors  Verified and agreed land cover and land status map for developing LUC matrices

27 Central Kalimantan MineralLand Cover 2005 UDFDIFUSFUDMDSFDIMRPLOPLTPLMTCSCHSSHDCLSETGRSSGRRCFCFPMINWABBRLNCL Total_ha Land Cover 2000 UDF 5,970,73 799,482 8,2192, ,045 14, ,186,615 DIF 576,184 23,4527,6343,544199,660 13, ,739 USF 823,220 61,848 6,785 6, ,609 UDM 0 DSF 233, , ,284 DIM 34,663 RPL 79,1837,891 87,074 OPL 254,710 TPL 1,15611,56047,722 34, ,578 MTC 1,408 33,121 4,389 38,918 SCH 19,68960,26523,52715,657 1,948, , , ,113,570 SSH 5, , ,544 DCL 1,69313,017 1, , , ,685 SET 24,771 GRS 3,8593,750 3,9636,796 53,232 24,660 96,258 SGR 1, ,565 56,883 82,393 RCF 14 57,134 57,148 CFP 1,202 MIN 3 15,252 15,255 WAB 110,561 BRL 0 NCL 0 Total_h a 5,970, ,666823, ,94734,663113,799391,73978,93257,468 2,280, ,903545,42125,05724,78857,31166,0511,20220,896110, ,286,576

28  Indonesian agriculture intensifies and the area extends (esp. for OP) in response to domestic and international demands  Rehabilitation of low C-stock land to tree-based agriculture can reduce GHG emission and at the same time improve the economy and livelihoods. Clearance of land status and tenure is a prerequisite.  Technical and financial supports are required for developing smallholder tree-based farming.  Swapping the land bank to low C-stock areas promises a significant ER, but requires legal reform on land status.  Verified and agreed land cover and land status maps and emission factors are the key to moving forward


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