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A RIVER – A GIFT AND AN ELEMENT. Polish river network • Almost whole Poland is in the Baltic Sea catchment area, in river basins of two major rivers:

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Presentation on theme: "A RIVER – A GIFT AND AN ELEMENT. Polish river network • Almost whole Poland is in the Baltic Sea catchment area, in river basins of two major rivers:"— Presentation transcript:

1 A RIVER – A GIFT AND AN ELEMENT

2 Polish river network • Almost whole Poland is in the Baltic Sea catchment area, in river basins of two major rivers: the Vistula and the Oder.

3 The longest river in Poland is the Vistula. It is 1047 km long. Its source is located on Barania Góra in Beskid Śląski. The largest tributaries of the Vistula are: Dunajec, San, Wieprz, Bug, Drwęca. The second largest river is the Oder. It is slightly shorter - it is 854 km long. Its sources are located in the Czech Republic in Góry Odrzańskie, and the major tributaries are the Warta and Noteć. The longest river in Poland is the Vistula. It is 1047 km long. Its source is located on Barania Góra in Beskid Śląski. The largest tributaries of the Vistula are: Dunajec, San, Wieprz, Bug, Drwęca. The second largest river is the Oder. It is slightly shorter - it is 854 km long. Its sources are located in the Czech Republic in Góry Odrzańskie, and the major tributaries are the Warta and Noteć.

4 Other major Polish rivers are: San, Pilica, Narew, Bug, Bób, Nysa Łużycka, Warta, Noteć.

5 The use of rivers in Poland • Obtaining Electricity • In Poland, about 3,5% of the electricity is produced in hydroelectric power plants. The largest of them are in Solina, Żydowo, Porąbka-Żar.

6 Watering and fertilizing functions In Poland, the rivers are also used for arable lands irrigation. Sediment carried by the rivers’ water fertilizes soil. Irrigation is extensively used in the area of Żuławy Wiślane. In Poland, the rivers are also used for arable lands irrigation. Sediment carried by the rivers’ water fertilizes soil. Irrigation is extensively used in the area of Żuławy Wiślane.

7 Recreational and tourist functions: • Rivers are also used as a tourist attraction and a place where you can spend your free time. An example of such use may be the Dunajec river.

8 Transport function of rivers • Rivers are often used as transport routes. They serve as an alternative freight route, usually of bulk.In Poland, however, this means of transport is used to a small extent. The main inland transportation route in Poland is the Oder river. • Rivers are often used as transport routes. They serve as an alternative freight route, usually of bulk. In Poland, however, this means of transport is used to a small extent. The main inland transportation route in Poland is the Oder river.

9 Source of drinking water • Rivers are a major source of fresh water on the planet. They are used for the abstraction of drinking water also in Poland. An example is the Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk) conurbation, whose main source of water is a Goczałkowickie lake, formed by a dam on the Vistula.

10 • Water is also obtained for the needs of industry. Industries such as as steel, energy and chemical industries require large amounts of water to operate, that is why they are often built near rivers. • Water is also obtained for the needs of industry. Industries such as as steel, energy and chemical industries require large amounts of water to operate, that is why they are often built near rivers.

11 The use of the rivers in the past • Defence functions: • In the past, the rivers played a vitally important role, due to their natural defensive qualities. Cities were built along rivers in order to provide them with extra defence lines. Fortresses were built in the proximity of rivers as well. An example is the fortress of Modlin and Wawel Royal Castle.

12 Rivers were also applied to: In the past rivers were particularly important due to their natural defensive qualities. Rivers were also main communication routes. In Poland for over 350 years Vistula and other rivers had been used for grain transportation. Grain collected from the fields in the central part of the country was carried along rivers to Gdańsk and then it was exported to the western countries. In the past rivers were particularly important due to their natural defensive qualities. Rivers were also main communication routes. In Poland for over 350 years Vistula and other rivers had been used for grain transportation. Grain collected from the fields in the central part of the country was carried along rivers to Gdańsk and then it was exported to the western countries.

13 Rivers were used to power watermills and continued to be a very important source of food. Apart from being a rich source of fish, rivers indirectly aid in cultivation with its supply of water for the crops.

14 River as a part of natural environment: •. Rivers are one of the most important landscape elements in our country. They create valleys, lakes and meanders. They are the home of numerous species of plants and animals, also of the endangered and protected ones.

15 Dangers connected with rivers: • Rivers carry great danger. This danger are floods. Water is one of the most powerful and most destructive elements. Floods cause numerous damages. These damages can be divided into two types. The first one refers to serious consequences for the environment, the second one to consequences for people and their economy. Size of damages depends on the scale of flood and we can classify floods into three types: • Small-range floods. • Middle-range floods which do not affect a country and its functioning. • Big-range floods which take the form of a natural disaster and do affect the functioning of the entire country.

16 Consequences of floods for the natural environment: • They destroy natural habitat of wild animals. • They damage wildlife and endangered species of animals and plants.

17 Consequences of floods for humans: • They pollute drinking water • They destroy housing estates and livelihoods • They destroy crops and arable lands • They kill domestic animals • They cause great material damages • They are hazardous for people’s lives • They are hazardous for people’s lives

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19 1997 Central European flood • The 1997 Central European flood or the 1997 Oder Flood of the Oder River and its tributaries in July 1997 affected Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic, taking lives of people (in Czech Republic and Poland) and causing material damages estimated at $4.5 billion (3.8 billion euros in the Czech Republic and Poland and 330 million euros in Germany). The flooding first begun in the Czech Republic, then spread to Poland and Germany. In Poland, it was one of the most disastrous floods in the history of this country, it was named the Millennium Flood (Powódź tysiąclecia)although the term was also used in Germany (Jahrtausendflut). The flood has also been referred to as the Great Flood of 1997.

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21 2010 Central European flood The 2010 Central European floods were a devastating series of weather events which occurred across several Central European countries during May, June and August Poland was the worst affected country. Austria, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine were also affected. At least thirty-seven people died in the floods and approximately 23,000 people were evacuated. The city of Krakow declared a state of emergency. The losses were higher than 5 bln dolars. Water flooded over ha in 2157 villages.

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23 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!


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