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ForceHTTPS: Protecting High-Security Web Sites from Network Attacks Collin Jackson and Adam Barth.

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Presentation on theme: "ForceHTTPS: Protecting High-Security Web Sites from Network Attacks Collin Jackson and Adam Barth."— Presentation transcript:

1 ForceHTTPS: Protecting High-Security Web Sites from Network Attacks Collin Jackson and Adam Barth

2 Network Attacks •Eavesdrop or corrupt network traffic –Wireless networks –ISP –Pharming •Defense: HTTPS –Protects passwords –Use “Secure” cookies to protect session

3 HTTPS Errors •Intentional errors –Prevent passive attacks •Unintentional errors –Expired certs –Wrong cert installed •Misconfiguration or attack? –Browser doesn’t know –User doesn’t know

4 Threat Model •Active network attacker –Controls the network –Has a valid CA certificate for attacker.com –Does not have a valid CA certificate for bank.com •User –Clicks through certificate errors –Only types bank password at –If applicable, uses 2-factor auth (e.g. SiteKey) correctly

5 Proposal: ForceHTTPS •Site sets a “ForceHTTPS” cookie –Opts in to strict error processing –Not interested in compatibility –Treat errors as an attack, not a misconfiguration •Specification: –Non-HTTPS connections redirect to HTTPS –HTTPS errors treated as fatal –Importing non-HTTPS content (mixed content) fails

6 Case Study: PayPal •Wants to host entire website over HTTPS –HTTP redirects to HTTPS –User may arrive by typing "www.paypal.com" –Links pointing to HTTP –Cert errors on some dark corners… –Strong desire to prevent mixed content

7 Case Study: Bank of America •Separate domain for logged-in users •Session identifier stored in “Secure” cookie •Second factor stored in “Secure” cookie •Wants to prevent phishing, pharming

8 Case Study: Gmail •Login form always over HTTPS •Imperfect web developers

9 Use of non-Secure Cookies •Mail available over both HTTP and HTTPS •New account, always visited over HTTPS •Compromised by passive network attacker

10 Implementation •Firefox extension –Available for download at forcehttps.com –Monitors all network connections –Blocks connections with cert errors for sites that opt-in –Blocks mixed content for sites that opt-in •User-enabled protection –ForceHTTPS enabled for known-compatible sites –Safer Gmail at security conferences

11 Eliminating Mixed Content •Users can enable ForceHTTPS for any site –Few sites work perfectly “out of the box” –Logs mixed content errors to developer console –Found many issues with real sites just by browsing –Want to extend to combine with a web app scanner

12 Trick: Scheme Relative URLs •Mixed content is hard to avoid –Often host same content over HTTP and HTTPS –Only want to pay for HTTPS when needed •Omit the scheme •Works in all browsers

13 Related Work: Firefox 3 •Firefox 3 – Four clicks –User override harder –Controversial balance •Security •Compatibility –Low-security sites •Harder to use –High-security sites •User can still override •How will users react?

14 Related Work: WSKE •Web Server Key-Enabled Cookies –Secure cookies only sent for same TLS key –Intended to secure the user’s second-factor cookie

15 Related Work: Locked SOP •Augment same-origin policy with cert info –“Broken” HTTPS page can’t script valid HTTPS page •Importing libraries ignore scripting policy – –User clicks through cert error for paypalobjects.com –Real PayPal imports script from paypalobjects.com –Attacker runs script as “unbroken” PayPal Sites cannot safely use, CSS, SWF, etc

16 Conclusions •Browsers trade off security for compatibility –High-security sites want more security –Browser can be stricter if sites opt-in –Simple kind of “content restriction” •ForceHTTPS –“Please enable strict HTTPS error processing” –Strong threat model, difficult to get mechanism right –More details in the paper •Denial of service, error recovery, cookie integrity, privacy, etc


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