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Every Thing You Should Know About Linux

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Presentation on theme: "Every Thing You Should Know About Linux"— Presentation transcript:

1 Every Thing You Should Know About Linux
Prabhaker Mateti Department Of Computer Science and Engineering Wright State University May 2008

2 Are you sure you have not used Linux already?

3 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

4 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux runs on … PDA? Smart Phone? GPS? TiVO? Router? Wireless AP? Wrist watch? Car? Airplane? May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

5 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Cell Phones Motorola Rokr E8 Quad GSM/GPRS Multi-codec music player Full HTML browser Jan. 10, 2008 May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

6 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Cell Phones Open source hardware Free CAD files May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

7 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux on iPods uCLinux + podzilla iPOds to 5.5G iPod Nano 1G May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

8 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
One Laptop Per Child Runs on Linux Sugar “desktop” promotes sharing and learning. May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

9 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Google Linux Clusters GFS: The Google File System thousands of terabytes of storage across thousands of disks on over a thousand machines 150 million queries per day Average response time of sec Near-100% uptime May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

10 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Smallest Linux System Mar. 28, 2005 DigiConnect ME RJ-45 Plus 0.75 x 0.75 x 1.4 in 18 grams uClinux 32-bit ARM7TDMI May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

11 Overview of the Rest of theTalk
Linux Internals Distributions Desktop Environments Linux Clusters Security Open Source Software Important Applications May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

12 Linux Internals

13 Academic Def: An OS consists of
File Systems Virtual Memory Management Process Management Network Layer Input/Output Subsystem User Management (Booting the OS) [Collection of System Programs] May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

14 Academic Definition of Kernel
OS are expected to be implemented as Layers Kernel is the inner most layer Layers are architecturally supported by CPU privilege modes. Micro-kernel architecture May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

15 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
“Linux kernel” The OS as we defined – boot – SysPrgs Monolithic As Files /boot/vmlinuz single file /boot/initrd single file /lib/modules/* about 3500 files 4 Million lines of code Several thousand contributors May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

16 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Kernels Numbering Scheme: Major.Minor.Release 2.2 (1999) 2.4 (2001) 2.6 (2003) Current Source Code Versions: linux tar.bz2 10-May MB linux tar.bz2 07-May MB linux tar.bz Feb MB May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

17 “Linux” as used in this Talk
Linux Kernel System Programs: /sbin, /usr/sbin UI Desktop Env: X11, KDE, Gnome, … Shells: Bash, csh, ksh, … Utilities /bin, /usr/bin, … Applications Publishing: TeX, MetaPost, PS, PDF, … Multimedia: Audio, Video Sotware Development: Perl, Python, Ruby, Servers Web File Compute May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

18 K Desktop Environment (KDE)
4 Million lines of code Over 800 contributors help to develop KDE. The translation team: about 300. KDE has about 20 official WWW mirrors in 12 countries. KDE has more than 106 official FTP mirrors in over 39 countries May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

19 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
KDE Components aRts: Analog realtime synthesizer and sound daemon. KDE 4.0 uses Phonon KDE-Libs: Various run-time libraries KDE-Base: window-manager, desktop, panel, Konqueror KDE-Network: KNode, KNewsticker, Kppp, ... KDE-Pim: KMail, KAddressbook, KOrganizer, KPilot, ... KDE-Graphics: Graphics applications such as KDVI, KGhostview, KPaint, KFax, ... KDE-Multimedia: Noatun, KMidi, KSCD, ... KDE-Accessibility: applications to improve computer access for disabled people... KDE-Utilities: KEdit, KCalc, KHexEdit, KNotes, ... KDE-Edu: Edutainment applications KDE-Games: KAsteroids, KPat, KTetris, ... KDE-Admin: Various tools to aid system administration KDE-SDK: Script and tools which simplify development of KDE applications KOffice: Integrated office suite KDevelop: C/C++ Integrated Development Environment KDE-Bindings: bindings for various languages (Python, Ruby, Perl, Java...) KDEWebdev: Web Development Tool May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

20 Native Linux File Systems
Extended File System Ext2 Ext3 Ext4 Other Journaling File Systems ReiserFS SGI XFS IBM JFS May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

21 Linux Non-Native File Systems
NTFS5: Full read/write operations Native File Systems of every major OS fully supported: FAT, FAT16, FAT32 of Windows MacOS Solaris BSD May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

22 Distributed File Systems
Classic DFS NFS AFS Samba for Windows Linux is a rich test bed for DFS research KOSMOS Ceph Many encrypted file systems May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

23 Linux Distributions

24 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Distributions Define “distribution”! Major Distributions Debian, Ubuntu RedHat, Fedora Novell SuSe, Open Suse Mandriva Slackware Minor Distributions 1000+ May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

25 How Do Distributions Differ?
What is included in the default installation Operating System UI Shells GUI Utilities Selected Applicatins Patches provided by the Distro Installing New Components/Applications Updates Security New versions Browsing for Available Software Look and Feel of the Initial Install May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

26 How Do Distributions Differ?
Versions of installed libraries /lib/ /usr/lib/ Configuration Location of Files Syntax GUI/command line tools Distributions from Scratch Build it from Source Gentoo May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

27 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Ubuntu Ubuntu is a derivative of Debian “Ubuntu will always be “free to download, “free to use and “free to distribute to others.” Desktop Edition Server Edition X86-32, x86-64, and Mac Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, … May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

28 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Live CD/DVD fully writable root filesystem hardware auto-detection can be installed to local hard disk can be installed on USB MSD Automated scripts to make a LiveDVD from any distro May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

29 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Knoppix LiveDVD General Purpose Linux Try it without installing on HDD Excellent hardware detection Large collection of applications KDE, …, fluxbox Open Office, Emacs, gcc, … Web browsers, … Uncompresses on the fly Several GB of software Relatively Slow May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

30 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Damn Small Linux About 50 MB Can run without a HDD X11 Desktop Many useful applications Office Web surfing Multimedia May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

31 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux on a USB Drive Install on a USB MSD as a HDD Install a Live Image on USB MSD On the fly uncompression Fast installation Relatively slow execution Lab on Installing Linux on a USB Drive May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

32 Scientific Linux LiveDVD
By Fermilab, CERN, and other labs and universities LiveDVD 32bit/64bit with Gnome/KDE/Icewm desktop 5.1 for i386 and x86_64 released on RedHat Enterprise Linux Fully writable root filesystem Hardware auto-detection May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

33 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Embedded Linux uCLinux (Micro Controller Linux) Linux kernels 2.0, 2.4 and kernel 2.6 collection of user applications libraries and tool chains uCLinux ported widely May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

34 Linux Clusters

35 Cluster Characteristics
Commodity off the shelf hardware Networked Common Home Directories Open source software and OS Support message passing programming Batch scheduling of jobs Process migration May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

36 Why are Linux Clusters Good?
Low initial implementation cost Inexpensive PCs Standard components and Networks Free Software: Linux, GNU, MPI, PVM Scalability: can grow and shrink Familiar technology, easy for user to adopt the approach, use and maintain system. May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

37 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Example Clusters July 1999 1000 nodes Used for genetic algorithm research by John Koza, Stanford University May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

38 Largest Cluster System
IBM BlueGene, 2007 DOE/NNSA/LLNL Memory: GB OS: CNK/SLES 9 Interconnect: Proprietary PowerPC 440 106,496 nodes 478.2 Tera FLOPS on LINPACK May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

39 Message Passing Interface (MPI)
MPI-2.0 MPICH: by Argonne National Laboratory and Missisippy State University LAM: May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

40 Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
PVM enables a heterogeneous collection of networked computers to be used as a single large parallel computer. Older than MPI Large scientific/engineering user community May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

41 Kernels Etc Mods for Clusters
Dynamic load balancing Transparent process-migration Kernel Mods CLuster Membership Subsystem ("CLMS") and Internode Communication Subsystem GlusterFS: Clustered File Storage of peta bytes. GlusterHPC: High Performance Compute Clusters Open-source software for volunteer computing and grid computing Condor clusters May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

42 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
OS Share of Top 500 OS Count Share Rmax (GF) Rpeak (GF) Processor Linux % Windows % Unix % BSD % Mixed % MacOS % Totals % Nov 2007 May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

43 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Security of Linux Security flaws are largely due to Network protocol design flaws Sloppy programming by software authors Poor configuration Number of exploits, number of advisories similar to those of other OS Worms, not viruses Compromised crypto Buffer overflows Considerable research analysis of Linux source code May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

44 Security Hardened Linux
Portions of Linux replaced, re-designed, enhanced for improved security Stack top randomization Prevention of data page execution Linux Security Modules (LSM) SELinux May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

45 Security Tools on Linux
Penetration Testing Network analysis (e.g. nmap, tcpdump) Password cracking Disaster recovery (e.g. gparted, gpart, partimage, testdisk, recover) Virus scanning (Clam Antivirus, the GUI xfprot for F-Prot) computer forensics (e.g. chkrootkit, foremost, rootkit hunter) Backtrack3 STD INSERT May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

46 Important Applications

47 A Few Ubuntu/Debian packages
Electric custom IC layout (ASICs), schematic drawing, hardware description language specifications, and electro-mechanical hybrid layout. ViPEC analysis of high frequency, linear electrical networks. ViPEC supports lumped elements as well as distributed networks Kicad Electronic schematic and PCB design software QCad 2 A professional CAD System with ISO-texts and DXF-files. PythonCAD drafting program scriptable with Python May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

48 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Example Applications kmail, evolution, sylpheed, thunderbird Surfing: konqueror, firefox, galeon, opera Software Development: compilers for nearly all known languages Drawing: dia, graphviz, kchart, inkscape Music: amarok, gnupod Games: Sauerbraten, Savage, Doom May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

49 Applications on Publishing
TeX/LaTeX Kyle Lyx TeXmacs MetaPost drawing language GraphViz Scribus Office Suites Abiword Koffice OpenOffice May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

50 Matlab :: Scilab, Octave, Rlab
Not 100% compatible with m-files. Matrix-based programming languages. Built-in support for complex numbers. Powerful built-in math functions and extensive function libraries. Extensibility in the form of user-defined functions. May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

51 Computer Algebra Systems
Manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions, including differentiation, integration, Taylor series, Laplace transforms, ordinary differential equations, systems of linear equations, polynomials, and sets, lists, vectors, matrices, and tensors. Maple on Linux: commercial product May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

52 Software Development on Linux
Develop software for Linux on Linux Develop software for other OS on Linux Every well-known PL has compilers/ interpreters on Linux Excellent Debuggers Virtualization Team Support Environments May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

53 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
C and C++ on Linux These are the “native” languages. Compilers GNU compilers Intel compilers IBM compilers Sun Studio compilers Princeton LCC May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

54 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
GNU Compilers Fortran Fortran 95 standard a few Fortran 2003 features Java compilation to machine code as well as byte code Objective-C, Objective-C++ Ada and Pascal May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

55 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Virtualization Run multiple virtual machines on a single host. VMware XEN QEMU/KVM VirtualLogix lguest OpenVZ May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

56 LiMo Foundation Platform
Open, hardware-independent, Linux-based OS for mobile devices. January 2007 Motorola, NEC, NTT DoCoMo, Panasonic, Samsung and Vodafone May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

57 Specific Uses of Linux

58 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux DIY Servers Home MultiMedia/File Server LAMP Server LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP WordPress Blog server server spam assassin May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

59 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Firewall Take a standard PC and install one of these: IPcop Smoothwall Firestarter Kaladix STD EnGarde May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

60 Linux Digital Video Recorders
“In compliance with the GPL version 2, we are pleased to provide our modifications to the Linux Kernel, as well as a few new commands, and some tools to get you into the code.” MythTV May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

61 Linux Installation Issues
Linux-only PCs Newbies should be able to install Multi-boot PCs Problem Areas Partitioning of the hard disks Installation of OS Boot Loader Mix and Match Distributions Impractical to mix and match Best to Compile from Source Code May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

62 Linux Installation Issues
Device Drivers Unavailable for Latest Graphics cards Latest Wireless cards Other devices are OK Tainted/Restricted Drivers Not “fully open source” drivers ndiswrapper May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux

63 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux
Linux Links distrowatch.com/ – Distributions news kernel.org/ Kernel source code tldp.org/ -- Linux Documentation Project linux-live.org/ – LiveDVD build tools linuxsecurity.com/ - Linux security portal May 2008 Mateti-Everything-About-Linux


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