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Every Thing You Should Know About Linux Prabhaker Mateti Department Of Computer Science and Engineering Wright State University May 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Every Thing You Should Know About Linux Prabhaker Mateti Department Of Computer Science and Engineering Wright State University May 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Every Thing You Should Know About Linux Prabhaker Mateti Department Of Computer Science and Engineering Wright State University May 2008

2 Are you sure you have not used Linux already?

3 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux3

4 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux4 Linux runs on …  PDA? Smart Phone?  GPS?  TiVO?  Router? Wireless AP?  Wrist watch?  Car? Airplane?

5 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux5 Linux Cell Phones  Motorola Rokr E8  Quad GSM/GPRS  Multi-codec music player  Full HTML browser  Jan. 10, 2008

6 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux6 Linux Cell Phones   Open source hardware  Free CAD files

7 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux7 Linux on iPods  uCLinux + podzilla   iPOds to 5.5G  iPod Nano 1G

8 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux8 One Laptop Per Child  Runs on Linux  Sugar “desktop” promotes sharing and learning.

9 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux9 Google Linux Clusters  GFS: The Google File System  thousands of terabytes of storage across thousands of disks on over a thousand machines  150 million queries per day  Average response time of 0.25 sec  Near-100% uptime

10 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux10 Smallest Linux System  Mar. 28, 2005  DigiConnect ME  RJ-45 Plus  0.75 x 0.75 x 1.4 in  18 grams  uClinux  32-bit ARM7TDMI

11 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux11 Overview of the Rest of theTalk 1. Linux Internals 2. Distributions 3. Desktop Environments 4. Linux Clusters 5. Security 6. Open Source Software 7. Important Applications

12 Linux Internals

13 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux13 Academic Def: An OS consists of  File Systems  Virtual Memory Management  Process Management  Network Layer  Input/Output Subsystem  User Management  (Booting the OS)  [Collection of System Programs]

14 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux14 Academic Definition of Kernel  OS are expected to be implemented as Layers  Kernel is the inner most layer  Layers are architecturally supported by CPU privilege modes.  Micro-kernel architecture

15 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux15 “Linux kernel”  The OS as we defined – boot – SysPrgs  Monolithic  As Files  /boot/vmlinuzsingle file  /boot/initrdsingle file  /lib/modules/*about 3500 files  4 Million lines of code  Several thousand contributors

16 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux16 Linux Kernels  Numbering Scheme: Major.Minor.Release  2.2 (1999)  2.4 (2001)  2.6 (2003)  Current Source Code Versions:  linux tar.bz2 10-May MB  linux tar.bz2 07-May MB  linux tar.bz2 24-Feb MB

17 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux17 “Linux” as used in this Talk  Linux Kernel  System Programs: /sbin, /usr/sbin  UI  Desktop Env: X11, KDE, Gnome, …  Shells: Bash, csh, ksh, …  Utilities  /bin, /usr/bin, …  Applications  Publishing: TeX, MetaPost, PS, PDF, …  Multimedia: Audio, Video  Sotware Development: Perl, Python, Ruby,  Servers  Web  File  Compute

18 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux18 K Desktop Environment (KDE)  4 Million lines of code  Over 800 contributors help to develop KDE.  The translation team: about 300.  KDE has about 20 official WWW mirrors in 12 countries.  KDE has more than 106 official FTP mirrors in over 39 countries

19 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux19 KDE Components  aRts: Analog realtime synthesizer and sound daemon. KDE 4.0 uses Phonon  KDE-Libs: Various run-time libraries  KDE-Base: window-manager, desktop, panel, Konqueror  KDE-Network: KNode, KNewsticker, Kppp,...  KDE-Pim: KMail, KAddressbook, KOrganizer, KPilot,...  KDE-Graphics: Graphics applications such as KDVI, KGhostview, KPaint, KFax,...  KDE-Multimedia: Noatun, KMidi, KSCD,...  KDE-Accessibility: applications to improve computer access for disabled people...  KDE-Utilities: KEdit, KCalc, KHexEdit, KNotes,...  KDE-Edu: Edutainment applications  KDE-Games: KAsteroids, KPat, KTetris,...  KDE-Admin: Various tools to aid system administration  KDE-SDK: Script and tools which simplify development of KDE applications  KOffice: Integrated office suite  KDevelop: C/C++ Integrated Development Environment  KDE-Bindings: bindings for various languages (Python, Ruby, Perl, Java...)  KDEWebdev: Web Development Tool

20 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux20 Native Linux File Systems  Extended File System  Ext2  Ext3  Ext4  Other Journaling File Systems  ReiserFS  SGI XFS  IBM JFS

21 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux21 Linux Non-Native File Systems  NTFS5: Full read/write operations  Native File Systems of every major OS fully supported:  FAT, FAT16, FAT32 of Windows  MacOS  Solaris  BSD

22 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux22 Distributed File Systems  Classic DFS  NFS  AFS  Samba for Windows  Linux is a rich test bed for DFS research  KOSMOS  Ceph  Many encrypted file systems

23 Linux Distributions

24 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux24 Linux Distributions  Define “distribution”!  Major Distributions  Debian, Ubuntu  RedHat, Fedora  Novell SuSe, Open Suse  Mandriva  Slackware  Minor Distributions  1000+

25 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux25 How Do Distributions Differ?  What is included in the default installation  Operating System  UI  Shells  GUI  Utilities  Selected Applicatins  Patches provided by the Distro  Installing New Components/Applications  Updates  Security  New versions  Browsing for Available Software  Look and Feel of the Initial Install

26 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux26 How Do Distributions Differ?  Versions of installed libraries  /lib/  /usr/lib/  Configuration  Location of Files  Syntax  GUI/command line tools  Distributions from Scratch  Build it from Source  Gentoo

27 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux27 Ubuntu  Ubuntu is a derivative of Debian  “Ubuntu will always be  “free to download,  “free to use and  “free to distribute to others.”  Desktop Edition  Server Edition  X86-32, x86-64, and Mac  Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, …

28 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux28 Linux Live CD/DVD  fully writable root filesystem  hardware auto-detection  can be installed to local hard disk  can be installed on USB MSD  Automated scripts to make a LiveDVD from any distro 

29 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux29 Knoppix LiveDVD  General Purpose Linux  Try it without installing on HDD  Excellent hardware detection  Large collection of applications  KDE, …, fluxbox  Open Office, Emacs, gcc, …  Web browsers, …  Uncompresses on the fly  Several GB of software  Relatively Slow

30 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux30 Damn Small Linux  About 50 MB  Can run without a HDD  X11 Desktop  Many useful applications  Office  Web surfing   Multimedia

31 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux31 Linux on a USB Drive  Install on a USB MSD as a HDD  Install a Live Image on USB MSD  On the fly uncompression  Fast installation  Relatively slow execution  Lab on Installing Linux on a USB Drive  Spring/Labs/OS-on-USB/OSonUSBLab.htm Spring/Labs/OS-on-USB/OSonUSBLab.htm Spring/Labs/OS-on-USB/OSonUSBLab.htm 

32 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux32 Scientific Linux LiveDVD  By Fermilab, CERN, and other labs and universities  LiveDVD 32bit/64bit with Gnome/KDE/Icewm desktop  5.1 for i386 and x86_64 released on  RedHat Enterprise Linux  Fully writable root filesystem  Hardware auto-detection 

33 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux33 Embedded Linux  uCLinux (Micro Controller Linux)  Linux kernels 2.0, 2.4 and kernel 2.6  collection of user applications  libraries and  tool chains  uCLinux ported widely

34 Linux Clusters

35 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux35 Cluster Characteristics  Commodity off the shelf hardware  Networked  Common Home Directories  Open source software and OS  Support message passing programming  Batch scheduling of jobs  Process migration

36 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux36 Why are Linux Clusters Good?  Low initial implementation cost  Inexpensive PCs  Standard components and Networks  Free Software: Linux, GNU, MPI, PVM  Scalability: can grow and shrink  Familiar technology, easy for user to adopt the approach, use and maintain system.

37 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux37 Example Clusters  July 1999  1000 nodes  Used for genetic algorithm research by John Koza, Stanford University  programming.com/ programming.com/ programming.com/

38 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux38 Largest Cluster System  IBM BlueGene, 2007  DOE/NNSA/LLNL  Memory: GB  OS: CNK/SLES 9  Interconnect: Proprietary  PowerPC 440  106,496 nodes  Tera FLOPS on LINPACK

39 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux39 Message Passing Interface (MPI)   MPI  MPICH: by Argonne National Laboratory and Missisippy State University  LAM: 

40 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux40 Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)  PVM enables a heterogeneous collection of networked computers to be used as a single large parallel computer.  Older than MPI  Large scientific/engineering user community 

41 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux41 Kernels Etc Mods for Clusters  Dynamic load balancing  Transparent process-migration  Kernel Mods      CLuster Membership Subsystem ("CLMS") and  Internode Communication Subsystem   GlusterFS: Clustered File Storage of peta bytes.  GlusterHPC: High Performance Compute Clusters   Open-source software for volunteer computing and grid computing  Condor clusters

42 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux42 OS Share of Top 500 OS Count Share Rmax (GF) Rpeak (GF) Processor Linux % Windows % Unix % BSD % Mixed % MacOS % Totals % Nov 2007

43 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux43 Security of Linux  Security flaws are largely due to  Network protocol design flaws  Sloppy programming by software authors  Poor configuration  Number of exploits, number of advisories similar to those of other OS  Worms, not viruses  Compromised crypto  Buffer overflows  Considerable research analysis of Linux source code

44 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux44 Security Hardened Linux  Portions of Linux replaced, re-designed, enhanced for improved security  Stack top randomization  Prevention of data page execution  Linux Security Modules (LSM)  SELinux

45 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux45 Security Tools on Linux  Penetration Testing  Network analysis (e.g. nmap, tcpdump)  Password cracking  Disaster recovery (e.g. gparted, gpart, partimage, testdisk, recover)  Virus scanning (Clam Antivirus, the GUI xfprot for F-Prot) Clam AntivirusClam Antivirus  computer forensics (e.g. chkrootkit, foremost, rootkit hunter)  Backtrack3  STD  INSERT

46 Important Applications

47 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux47 A Few Ubuntu/Debian packages  Electric  custom IC layout (ASICs), schematic drawing, hardware description language specifications, and electro-mechanical hybrid layout.  ViPEC  analysis of high frequency, linear electrical networks. ViPEC supports lumped elements as well as distributed networks  Kicad  Electronic schematic and PCB design software  QCad 2  A professional CAD System with ISO-texts and DXF-files.  PythonCAD  drafting program scriptable with Python

48 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux48 Example Applications  kmail, evolution, sylpheed, thunderbird  Surfing: konqueror, firefox, galeon, opera  Software Development: compilers for nearly all known languages  Drawing: dia, graphviz, kchart, inkscape  Music: amarok, gnupod  Games: Sauerbraten, Savage, Doom

49 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux49 Applications on Publishing  TeX/LaTeX  Kyle  Lyx  TeXmacs  MetaPost drawing language  GraphViz  Scribus  Office Suites  Abiword  Koffice  OpenOffice

50 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux50 Matlab :: Scilab, Octave, Rlab  Not 100% compatible with m-files.  Matrix-based programming languages.  Built-in support for complex numbers.  Powerful built-in math functions and extensive function libraries.  Extensibility in the form of user-defined functions.

51 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux51 Computer Algebra Systems  Manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions, including differentiation, integration, Taylor series, Laplace transforms, ordinary differential equations, systems of linear equations, polynomials, and sets, lists, vectors, matrices, and tensors.    Maple on Linux: commercial product

52 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux52 Software Development on Linux  Develop software for Linux on Linux  Develop software for other OS on Linux  Every well-known PL has compilers/ interpreters on Linux  Excellent Debuggers  Virtualization  Team Support Environments

53 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux53 C and C++ on Linux  These are the “native” languages.  Compilers  GNU compilers  Intel compilers  IBM compilers  Sun Studio compilers  Princeton LCC

54 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux54 GNU Compilers  Fortran  Fortran 95 standard  a few Fortran 2003 features  Java  compilation to machine code  as well as byte code  Objective-C, Objective-C++  Ada and Pascal

55 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux55 Virtualization  Run multiple virtual machines on a single host.  VMware  XEN  QEMU/KVM  VirtualLogix  lguest  OpenVZ

56 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux56 LiMo Foundation Platform  Open, hardware- independent, Linux- based OS for mobile devices.  January 2007  Motorola, NEC, NTT DoCoMo, Panasonic, Samsung and Vodafone 

57 Specific Uses of Linux

58 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux58 Linux DIY Servers Linux DIY Servers  Home MultiMedia/File Server  LAMP Server  LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP  WordPress  Blog server  server  spam assassin

59 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux59 Linux Firewall  Take a standard PC and install one of these:  IPcop  Smoothwall  Firestarter  Kaladix  STD  EnGarde

60 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux60 Linux Digital Video Recorders Linux Digital Video Recorders   “In compliance with the GPL version 2, we are pleased to provide our modifications to the Linux Kernel, as well as a few new commands, and some tools to get you into the code.”  MythTV

61 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux61 Linux Installation Issues Linux Installation Issues  Linux-only PCs  Newbies should be able to install  Multi-boot PCs Problem Areas  Partitioning of the hard disks  Installation of OS Boot Loader  Mix and Match Distributions  Impractical to mix and match  Best to Compile from Source Code

62 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux62 Linux Installation Issues Linux Installation Issues  Device Drivers Unavailable for  Latest Graphics cards  Latest Wireless cards  Other devices are OK  Tainted/Restricted Drivers  Not “fully open source” drivers  ndiswrapper

63 May 2008Mateti-Everything-About-Linux63 Linux Links  distrowatch.com/ – Distributions news distrowatch.com  kernel.org/ -- Kernel source code kernel.org  tldp.org/ -- Linux Documentation Project tldp.org/  linux-live.org/ – LiveDVD build tools linux-live.org  linuxsecurity.com/ - Linux security portal linuxsecurity.com/


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