27th century ArabiaTrade between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia)
3Mecca’s Pre-Islamic Foundations Adam and Eve: Shrine and TombCircumambulation by Noah’s arkAbraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar1892 BCEZamzam springRebuilt shrine—Ka’baGods in the Ka’ba ( pagan idols?)
5Spiritual Transformation Night of Power and Excellencec. 610Jibril (Gabriel) with God’s messageRevelations or RecitationsGod = AllahPublic recitations—God or jinns?
6- The Quran 2:344 “Say ‘Allah is God alone! God the eternal! He begets not and is not begotten!Nor is there like unto Him anyone!”- The Quran 2:344
7Seal of the Prophets Muhammad as the last and final prophet Following in the tradition of previous prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, JesusAll had been Muslim, but had turned astray or not gotten the entire messageIslam = SubmissionMuslim = one who submits (to the will of God)People of the BookWarning image follows…
13Death of Muhammad 632 Abu Bakr the first khalifa (successor) Umar cUthman (Umayya family) cAli (son-in-law/cousin) c
14Conflict over succession Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali) = Shi’itesAli, Muhammad’s first cousin/son-in-law should succeed. Movement to IraqAhl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’a = Sunnis(People of Tradition and community)
15Shi’itesLed by an Imam.Descendants of Muhammad through Ali and Fatima.Leaders are divinely inspired and know the hidden meanings of the Quran.Imam are the only ones who offer judgment on religious law.12 heavenly Imams (perfect teachers)12th Imam, the Mahdi (guided one), will reappear and guide humans towards justice and peace.
16Sunnis Caliph is the secular leader. No divine connection for leaders. Represents the religious leaders, but doctrine is left to the Ulama (those who know)
17Quran c.650 (Recitation)Hadith—words and deeds of the prophetShari’a—Islamic Law
18Policy Toward Conquered Peoples First hundred yearsNon-Arab, non-Muslim populationFew forced conversions—taxesPeople of the BookOne had to be Arab to be Muslim and vice versa.mid-700s more and more non-Arabs became Muslim
19Umayyad Dynasty( )Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Persia, Sind (NW India), Iberian peninsula.Center at Damascus.Military expansion.Dome of the Rock--Jerusalem