Presentation on theme: "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES IN QUALITY ASSURANCE"— Presentation transcript:
1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES IN QUALITY ASSURANCE Presentation prepared for Bologna Process Seminar onQuality Assurance in Transnational EducationLondon, Dec. 1-2, 2008By:Antony Stella & Marlene Hamilton
2 INTRODUCTION International Guidelines under review: INQAAHE Guidelines for Good Practice (GGP)Standards & Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG)UNESCO Code of Good Practice for the Provision of Transnational EducationUNESCO-OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education
3 LOGISTICS UNESCO Code to provide parameters UNESCO-OECD Guidelines ) INQAAHE GGP ) outlinedEuropean ESG ) contextuallyDifferences across Guidelines highlightedSimilarities consideredCriticisms arising
4 CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE IN THE PROVISION OF TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION Covers a Preamble and two sections (Terminology, Principles), in addition to an Explanatory Memorandum.Is specific to Higher Education in the European Region and is subsumed within the ESG and UNESCO-OECD GuidelinesBears some relevance to other major Guidelines
5 Preamble (main issues) Acknowledges rapid development of transnational education and the challenges posedNotes the important role of the new technologiesRecognizes the role of national systems in preserving the cultural, social, philosophical, and religious diversity of the European Region
6 Preamble (main issues) Cont’d Emphasizes the importance of the academic quality of programmes/degrees through this process and the role of qualifications in promoting mobility of both students and programmesRecognizes the role of other Codes in providing working frameworksAcknowledges the importance of underlying ethical principles and values and in finding commonly agreed solutions to any recognition problems in the region as well as globally
7 Preamble (main issues)Cont’d Stresses the need to update implementation mechanisms on a regular basisAgrees to: (i) the provision of higher education programmes by means of transnational education, and (ii) offers recommendations on procedures and criteria for the assessment of foreign qualifications.
8 Terminology Offers a working definition for the commonly used terms Agents Third Parties who act as intermediaries between awarding and providing institutions for establishing transnational educationAgreement Document agreed formally by the partners which contains all collaborative arrangements
9 Terminology Cont’dAwarding Institution HE institution issuing degrees and other qualificationsEducational Service Programme, or part thereof, leading after successful completion, to a qualificationPartners Awarding and providing institutions involved
10 Terminology Cont’dProviding Institution: Institution involved in delivery of programmeTransnational Arrangements Collaborative or non-collaborativeTransnational Education All programmes in which learners are situated in a country different from that of the awarding institution.
11 Principles Covers eleven (11) issues Transnational ArrangementsAcademic Quality and StandardsThe Policy and MissionInformationStaff MembersCulture and CustomsAgents
13 UNESCO-OECD GUIDELINES Objectives:To propose tools and a synthesis of best practices to assist Member States in assessing the quality and relevance of HE provided across bordersTo protect students and other stakeholders in HE from low-quality HE provisionsStakeholders:GovernmentsHE Institutions/providers (including academic staff)Student bodiesQuality assurance and accreditation bodiesAcademic recognition bodiesProfessional bodies
14 Recommendations Offered QA Agencies: Include cross-border education (all modes) within the scope of quality assuranceStrengthen network initiatives for QA agenciesEnsure information dissemination regarding the QA mechanism and its implicationsEnsure adherence to the Code of Good Practice
15 Recommendations Offered QA Agencies: Cont’d Establish mutual recognition agreements with other agenciesStrengthen cooperation with other stakeholders in the national systemStrengthen the international orientation of the QA processesAbove all, promote mutual trust, dialogue, sharing of responsibilities and cooperation among all six groups of stakeholders.
16 The UNESCO-OECD Guidelines may appear to address only one aspect of QA (the CBHE issues), but the principles and values reflected therein are valid for any form of education, including national (domestic) offerings.
17 European Standards and Guidelines (ESG) Some key aspects: Part 1: Internal quality assurance within HEIs1.1 Policy and procedures for quality assuranceShould commit explicitly to qualityHave a strategy for continuous enhancement of qualityPolicies should have a formal statusShould be publicly availablePreferably a role for students and other stakeholders
18 1.2 Approval, monitoring and periodic review 1.3 Assessment of studentsShould publish criteria, regulations and proceduresApply them consistently1.4 Quality assurance of teaching staffqualified and competentavailable to those undertaking external review
19 1.5 Learning resources and student support 1.6 Information systems adequate and appropriate1.6 Information systemscollect, analyse and use relevant informationfor the effective management1.7 Public information:regularly publish up to date, impartial and objective informationboth quantitative and qualitative
20 Part 2: External QA of higher education 2.1 Use of internal QA procedures2.2 Development of external QA processesaims and objectives of QA should be predetermined2.3 Criteria for decisionsexplicit published criteria that are applied consistently2.4 Processes fit for purposefitness to achieve the aims and objectives
21 2.5 Reporting 2.6 Follow-up procedures 2.7 Periodic reviews Should be published and written in a style, which is clear and readily accessible2.6 Follow-up procedurespredetermined follow-up procedure implemented consistently2.7 Periodic reviewsshould be undertaken on a cyclical basis2.8 System-wide analysesshould produce from time to time summary reports
22 Part 3: External quality assurance agencies 3.1 Use of external QA procedures for higher educationshould take into account the presence and effectiveness of the existing external QA processes3.2 Official statusshould be formally recognised by competent public authoritiesshould comply with requirements of the legislative jurisdictions
23 3.3 Activities 3.4 Resources 3.5 Mission statement 3.6 Independence should undertake external QA activities on a regular basis.3.4 Resourcesadequate, both human and financial3.5 Mission statementclear and explicit goals and objectives contained in a publicly available statement3.6 Independenceautonomous responsibilityconclusions made in their reports cannot be influenced by third parties
24 3.7 External QA criteria and processes used by the agencies pre-defined and publicly availableinclude self-assessment, external assessment by experts, and site visitspublication of a report, and a follow-up procedure.3.8 Accountability proceduresprocedures for their own accountability.
25 Guidelines under four sections INQAAHE GGP Guidelines under four sectionsSection 1 relates to the agency’s governance and accountability (Practices 1-4)Section 2 is about the agency’s relationship with HEIs (Practices 5-7)Section 3 is about the agency’s review process (Practices 8-10)Section 4 is about the agency’s external activities (Practices 11-12)
26 1. Governance of the agency written mission statement or set of objectivesexternal quality assurance as a major activitysystematic approach to achieving the objectivesa practical management plan that is linked to resourcesappropriate ownership and governance structure
27 2. Resourcesadequate and accessible human and financial resources3. Quality Assurance of the agencya system of continuous quality assurance of its own activitiesinternal self-review of its own activitiesexternal reviews at regular intervals
28 4. Reporting Public Information informs and responds to the publicfull and clear disclosures of its relevant documentationaccountability by publicly reporting decisionsdiscloses to the public external review of its own performance
29 5. Relationship with HEIs recognises that quality is primarily the responsibility of the HEIsrespects the academic autonomy of HEIsconsults stakeholders on its criteria and standardsaims to contribute to quality improvement as well
30 6. Requirements for the Review documents that indicate clearly the expectations7. Requirements for Reporting to the agencyincludes a self-evaluation, external peer review, and a follow-up procedure.
31 8. The Evaluation Process clear documentation on standards used, assessment methods and processes, decision criteria, and other information necessary for external review.specifications on the characteristics, selection and training of reviewers.When practicable, the EQAA should include at least one external reviewer from another country or jurisdiction in the external panel.
32 9. Decisionsdecisions must be impartial, rigorous, thorough, fair, and consistent.reported decisions are clear and precise.10. Appealsappropriate methods and policies for appealsno conflict of interest.
33 11. Collaborationexchange of good practices, capacity building, review of decisions, provision of transnational education, joint projects, and staff exchanges.12. Transnational/Cross-Border Higher Educationpolicies relating to both imported and exported higher educationmay be the same as those for domestic providers and domestic provision consider relevant guidelines issued by international agencies and other associationsconsult with appropriate local agencies in the exporting or importing countries
34 MAJOR DIFFERRENCES BETWEEN INQAAHE GGP AND ESG (and with reference to UNESCO-OECD Guidelines where appropriate)
35 OriginInvolvement of the StakeholdersEndorsementScopeAuthorityAttention to CBHENetwork EffortsAccountability vs ImprovementEmphasis
37 1. OriginESG is the response to the twin mandates given to ENQA in the Berlin Communiqué of September 2003 to develop an agreed set of standards, procedures and guidelines on quality assurance and to explore ways of ensuring an adequate peer review system for quality assurance and/or accreditation agencies or bodies. Thus the mandate for ESG came from the Ministers/governments whereas the GGP was the work of quality assurance agencies from over 65 countries.
38 2. Involvement of the stakeholders ESG is the result of joint efforts by various stakeholders. The ESG report notes that the achievement of such a joint understanding is a tribute to the spirit of co-operation and mutual respect that has characterised the discussions between all the players involved (EUA, EURASHE, ESIB and ENQA). The Ministers also asked ENQA to take due account of the expertise of other quality assurance associations and networks.
39 ESG aims to cater to the interests of students as well as employers ESG aims to cater to the interests of students as well as employers. It recognises that the interests of the higher education institutions and student representative bodies are not always the same, the former seeking a high level of autonomy with a minimum of external regulation or evaluation (and that at the level of the whole institution), the latter wanting institutions to be publicly accountable through frequent inspection at the level of the programme or qualification. Consultations with those stakeholders have brought in certain perspectives which are not very explicit in the other guidelines.
40 3. EndorsementESG was published with the endorsement of all the organisations named in the Berlin Communiqué. INQAAHE GGP was published with the endorsement of its member agencies while the UNESCO-OECD guidelines, although not legally binding, anticipate implementation by its Member States as appropriate to their national context .
41 4. ScopeESG provides standards for internal and external quality assurance, and for external quality assurance agencies. The standards are in three parts covering internal quality assurance of higher education institutions, external quality assurance of higher education, and quality assurance of external quality assurance agencies. INQAAHE GGP is specifically addressed to external quality assurance agencies.
42 4. Scope Cont’dESG aspires to promote an appropriate balance between the creation and development of internal quality cultures, and the role which external quality assurance procedures may play. INQAAHE GGP addresses this issue through the guidelines to the external quality assurance agencies.
43 5. AuthorityEuropean quality assurance agencies will be expected to submit themselves to a cyclical review within five years. A European register of quality assurance agencies is being developed that will list QA agencies that demonstrate adherence to ESG through these reviews. This adds an element of conformity and authority. In fact the ESG report states that the consistency of quality assurance across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) will be improved by the use of agreed standards and guidelines.
44 5. Authority Cont’dINQAAHE as a voluntary network of QA bodies depends on the voluntary uptake of the GGP by its members.
45 6. Attention to CBHEThe UNESCO-OECD guideline has a focus on QA of CBHE although the guidelines are applicable to domestic provision as well. To some extent it is built on the contrast between the need to regulate the internationalisation of higher education and the fact that existing national quality assurance capacity often focuses exclusively on domestic delivery by domestic institutions.
46 6. Attention to CBHE cont’d Therefore, it addresses a challenge for the current quality assurance systems while the other guidelines are about making the good practices more prevalent.
47 6. Attention to CBHE cont’d INQAAHE GGP has a specific guideline on transnational or cross-border education. The OECD-UNESCO guidelines recommend that external quality assurance agencies ensure that their quality assurance arrangements include foreign and for-profit institutions/providers as well as distance education delivery and other non-traditional modes of educational delivery.
48 6. Attention to CBHE cont’d ESG report indicates that it is considered too early to include a reference to this in the European standards for external quality assurance. However, the European register has a provision to include agencies from outside Europe operating in Europe as well as European agencies with cross-border operations.
49 7. Network EffortsStrengthening network efforts finds an explicit mention in the INQAAHE GGP as well as the UNESCO-OECD Guidelines. ESG does not mention that explicitly. ENQA considers that the OECD-UNESCO recommendation that agencies should sustain and strengthen the existing regional and international networks is included through other aspects of the ESG. For example, the ESG does mention that ‘institutions should be able to demonstrate their quality at home and internationally’.
50 8. Accountability vs improvement ESG states that ‘quality assurance for accountability purposes is fully compatible with quality assurance for enhancement purposes’ while INQAAHE GGP does not get into this contentious argument and simply acknowledges that both accountability and quality enhancement need attention.
51 Goals specific only to INQAAHE GGP include: 9. EmphasisGoals specific only to INQAAHE GGP include:Creating a framework to guide the creation of new QA agenciesPromoting professional development among QA agencies and their staff
52 9. Emphasis cont’dThese are not explicit in the other guidelines. INQAAHE being the professional network of QA agencies has given attention to these specific needs of its members.