2POVERTY STATUS ACCORDING TO THE 2011/12 HBS RESULTS TANZANIA MAINLAND Presented by:The National Bureau of Statistics
3OUTLINE BACKGROUND SURVEY DESIGN COVERAGE OVERVIEW OF POVERTY CONCLUSIONWAY FOWARD
4Background Information The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) conducted the 2011/12 Household Budget Survey in Tanzania Mainland as part of Monitoring and Evaluation of MKUKUTA Master Plan, particularly Cluster One.
5Previous Scientific HBS Surveys conducted since independence include: The 1990/91 HBS;The 2000/01 HBS;The 2007 HBS; andThe 2011/12 HBS.“These surveys forms the basis for tracking progress resulting from the Government’s poverty-reduction initiatives”
6MKUKUTA TARGETTarget – To Reduce Food Poverty up to 12.9 percent by 2015
7Survey DesignNational Representative – A total of 400 Enumeration Areas were selected:-120 from Dar es Salaam;120 from Other Urban; and160 from Rural
8CoverageThree Levels of Analysis – Dar es Salaam, Other Urban Areas and Rural Locations; andA total of 10,186 out of 10,400 households were interviewed (Response Rate of 94.1 percent).
9A Wide Range of Information was Collected Household members’ education and health status;Household expenditures and consumptions;Ownership of consumer goods and assets;Housing structure and building materials;Household access to services and facilities;
10 Tourism; … cont’d. Ownership of non-farm businesses; and Access to water and sanitation;Economic activities and employment; Tourism;Ownership of non-farm businesses; andAgricultural activities.
12Comparison of Poverty Trend The 2011/12 HBS results can not be compared directly with the 2007 HBS Results because of different methodologies used.The comparison will be done later. Results will be included in the Main Report.
13Measurement of Poverty (Lines) The Poverty Line was adjusted for the prices prevailing in different areas and by the time in which the interview was conducted.Poverty line was based on purchasing the 153 most common food items purchased.
14The Basic Needs Poverty Line is TZS The Basic Needs Poverty Line is TZS. 36,482 per adult equivalent per month andFood poverty Line is TZS. 26,085 per adult equivalent per month. The daily cost of the food poverty line is TZS. 858 per adult equivalent.
15Income Poverty Status (Percent) Basic Need PovertyDar es SalaamOther UrbanRuralMainlandFood PovertyDar es SalaamOther UrbanRuralMainland;
16Distribution of Poor Population Where are the Poor People?Rural households are much poorer than those in Urban Areas. Dar es Salaam is substantially better off than Other Urban and Rural Areas (see the next figure)
18… cont’d. Who is likely to be Poor? Poverty is directly related to the number of children aged between years in the household (percent).No Child 19.8One Child 23.2Two Children 30.33 and More 40.8
19Poverty Gap Index (Percent) Poverty Gap is an average shortfall of per capita consumption in the population relative to the poverty line, it identifies the depth of poverty.
20… cont’d Poverty Gap Index (Percent) Dar es Salaam 0.8 Other Urban Areas 5.5Rural Areas 7.9Mainland 6.9This means that population living in the Rural Areas is deeper in poverty – further away from poverty line.
21Income InequalityIncome inequality refers to the extent to which income is distributed in an unevenly manner among the population.The inequality is measured using the Gini Coefficient
22Gini Coefficient Dar es Salaam 0.35 Other Urban Areas 0.37 … cont’d.Gini CoefficientDar es SalaamOther Urban Areas 0.37Rural AreasTanzania Mainland 0.34There are more inequalities in Other Urban Areas compared to Dar es Salaam and Rural Areas
24Household Composition Households consist of an average of 5 persons.Nearly half (48 percent) of household members are dependants.Nearly a quarter (24.7 percent) of households are headed by female.
25Ownership of the Houses Seventy Six (76) Percent of households own the houses they live in. The proportion is highest in Rural Areas (89 percent) compared to 58 percent in Other Urban Areas and 37 percent in Dar es Salaam.
26Modern Roofing Material Sixty six (66) percent of households live in houses with modern roofs in 2011/12 compared to 55 percent in 2007.A modern roof in this survey is a roof made of corrugated iron sheets.
27Modern Wall MaterialSeventy three (73) percent of households live in houses with modern walls in 2011/12 compared to 33 percent of households that lived in houses with modern walls in 2007.Modern walls include: stones; cement bricks, sundried bricks, & baked bricks
28Coverage of National Electricity Grid Eighteen (18) percent of households live in houses that are connected to the national electricity grid compared to 10 percent in 2007
29… cont’d.The coverage is more extensive in urban areas than rural areas (percent).Dar es Salaam 68Other Urban Areas 36Rural Areas 4
30Source of Energy for Lighting About 40 percent of households use electricity as their main source of energy for lighting.However, Paraffin remains the main source of energy for lighting in Rural Areas (70 percent of households).
31Energy for CookingThe use of electricity for cooking is not common in all areas. About 70 percent of households in Urban Areas use charcoal and about 90 percent of households in Rural Areas use firewood as the main source of energy for cooking.
32Ownership of Motorcycles Ownership of motorcycles reached 4 percent in 2011/12 from 1.5 percent in 2007.
33Use of Mobile PhoneFifty seven (57) percent of households have at least one member owning a mobile phone.Ownership of mobile phones differs among the three strata (percent):Dar es Salaam 88Other Urban Areas 78Rural Areas 45
34The 2011/12 HBS Data will be used by NBS to: Way ForwardThe 2011/12 HBS Data will be used by NBS to:Rebase the Consumer Price Index using the 2011/12 HBS Results;Change Estimates on Household Consumption for National Accounts to prepare GDP;
35… cont’d. Poverty Mapping using Small Area Estimation; and Dissemination of poverty indices at national and regional levels
36ConclusionPoverty indicators obtained from the survey highlights the efforts made by the Government towards eradicating food poverty before 2015 as stipulated in MKUKUTA. Food Poverty was targeted to reach 12.9 percent by However, the survey result shows that food poverty has reached 9.7 percent by 2011/12.