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in the light of Sardinian metathesis and diachronic lenition in French

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1 in the light of Sardinian metathesis and diachronic lenition in French
41st Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages Ottawa, May 5-7, 2011 Branching Onsets in the light of Sardinian metathesis and diachronic lenition in French Tobias Scheer Université de Nice – Sophia Antipolis, CNRS 6039

2 in strong position C__V
purpose of the talk: to convince you that this is the identity of muta cum liquida (a branching onset) Lic in strong position C__V <== IG Lic in weak position V__V <== IG Gvt C V | T R Gvt C V | T R

3 roadmap introduction to the theory: the Coda Mirror and (syntactic) locality (Relativized Minimality) three phenomena are examined lenition of muta cum liquida (Celtic, Latin > Italian, Gorgia Toscana) Latin > French Gallo-Romance: ALF (French, Occitan, Franco-Provençal) compensatory lengthening within (sic) a muta cum liquida: lat. latroone > fr. laRRon metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian: /dormendu/  dromendu

4 The Strong Position in Phonology
(in Romance and elsewhere, Ségéral & Scheer 2001, 2008) - {#,C}__ = Strong Position: PORTA > porte TALPA > taupe - V__V = weak position A: FABA > fève - __{#,C} = weak position B (Coda): LUP(U) > l[u] RUPTA > route the mirror effect: {#,C}__ vs. __{#,C} are symmetric - with respect to their position: mirror image - with respect to their effect: strength vs. weakness

5 The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing
analysis in CVCV (Lowenstamm 1996, Scheer 2004) initial consonant #__ post-Coda consonant C.__ C V - | R T Gvt the initial CV = # represents the morphological information « beginning of the word » # relevant consonants: the word-initial consonant the consonant that occurs after a coda Lic P O RTA T A L P A consonants in Strong Position occur after an empty nucleus ø __ consonants in Strong Position are licensed but ungoverned Government inhibits the segmental expression of its target empty nuclei must be governed Licensing promotes the segmental expression of its target

6 The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing
intervocalic position V__V C V | Gvt Lic intervocalic V__V: the consonant is not adjacent to any empty nucleus licencensed and governed in coda position: the consonant occurs before an empty nucleus: __ø is neither licensed nor governed F A B A internal coda __.C final coda __# V C ... V # | R T Lic Gvt R U P T A L U P (U)

7 The Coda Mirror: Government & Licensing
summary Strong Position = {#,C}__ = ø__ = strength = ungoverned but licensed Coda = __{#,C} = __ ø = weak A = ungoverned and unlicensed intervocalic = V__V = V__V = weak B = governed and licensed

8 branching onsets in CVCV
worse than making a wrong prediction: making NO prediction at all what a branching Onset looks like (after a consonant) Gvt Lic branching onset <== IG C V | T R the solidarity of the cluster is due to a relationship that is contracted by the (melodies of) the two consonants: IG (Infrasegmental Government) the liquid R: licensed, but ungoverned ==> strong position the obstruent T: target of neither Gvt nor Lic ==> ??

9 Locality in Syntax Relativized Minimality, Rizzi (1990)
given two classes of items A and B, a relation between A1 et A2 is local iff no other A intervenes

10 ☺  Locality in Syntax three major classes of items in syntax:
- verbs (heads) - arguments (A position) - quantifiers (A’ position) Couldi John __i have come ? head John could have come argument head Havei John could __i come ? head * John could have come argument head

11  Locality in Syntax a branching onset is a non-local structure:
- major classes of items in phonology are: onset and nucleus - an internuclear relation exists whereby a third nucleus intervenes. Lic branching onset <== IG A M P L U S C V | T R Gvt

12 The trouble: summary no prediction made 2. violation of locality

13 The cure: making branching onsets local
instead of having a non-local government relation the intervening nucleus is the source of government it is entitled to govern because it is not itself governed: it is unpronounced for a different reason (IG) Lic branching onset <== IG C V | T R Gvt Gvt consequence: the definition of what a good governor is owes nothing to phonetics before: only nuclei with phonetic content can govern now: a nucleus can govern iff it is not governed itself

14 local branching onsets: predictions
when the TR is preceded by an empty nucleus (Strong Position), the T will also be in Strong Position (licensed but ungoverned) in case the TR is in intervocalic position, the T will also be in intervocalic position (licensed and governed) TR in Strong Position <== TR in intervocalic positon <== C V | T R Gvt Gvt C V | T R Lic Lic

15 local branching onsets: predictions
hence the following prediction: the T of a TR group behaves exactly like a simplex T - if the TR group is in Strong Position, T will be strong if the TR group is in intervocalic position, T will be intervocalic in other words: given a branching onset TR, T behaves like if R were not there

16 testing the prediction
typologically speaking, branching onsets are rare even rarer are languages that allow to test the reaction of TRs on lenition ==> the empirical situation largely understudied we examine 5 cases: - voicing in Latin > Northern Italian dialects - Celtic (in its prehistory) - Gorgia Toscana - French diachrony - Gallo-Romance dialects as witnessed by the ALF (Atlas Linguistique de la France)

17 testing the prediction
in each case, T behaves alike in V.TRV = V.TV C.TRV = C.TV

18 Grande Grammaire Historique du Français (GGHF)
env pages projet en cours livraison prévue vers éd. Christiane Marchello-Nizia Bernard Combettes Sophie Prévost Tobias Scheer

19 test case 1: Northern Italian dialects
(lomb., lig., venez. etc.) e.g. Rohlfs (1966:§260) "I gruppi cr, tr, pr. In questi gruppi la consonante occlusiva viene trattata esattemente come se si trovasse in posizione intervocalica." T TR p>v sapere saver aprile avril to know (lomb.), April (venez.) ripa riva capra chevra river bank, goat (bol.) t>d rota roda lutra lodra wheel, otter (venez.) lavata lavada *anitra anadra washed, duck (venez.) k>g amica amiga macro magro friend, mince (venez.) ficu figu lacruma legruma figue (lig.), tear (bol.)

20 test case 2: Celtic the classical scenario assumes 3 stages (e.g. McCone 1996) stage 1: IE b,d,g > v,,ɣ / V__V et V__RV V__V IE Proto-Celtic Old Irish glose b kladibos *klaivos klaiəv épée d kladibos *klaivos klaiəv épée g tegos *teɣos tieɣ maison 2. V__RV b dubro- *duvro- dovər eau d widwa: *wiwa: fiev veuve g wegros *weɣros fe:r herbe 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination N__ *windos fiind blanc #__, gém *buggos bog mou

21 test case 2: Celtic stage 2: as stage 1, but now also across word boundaries stage 3: t,k > ,  / V__V and V__RV (there is no p) V__V Insular Celtic Proto-Irish Old Irish glose t *ehja teɣah *eja eɣa ə ieɣ sa maison k *inda: kloka: *inda: loa: iŋ lo la pierre 2. V__RV t *bre:tra: *bre:rə briiaər mot k *dakra *dærə die:r larme 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination R__ *eisko- *eisk iask poisson gém *makwkwos *makwkwah mak garçon

22 test case 3: Gorgia Toscana
Castellani (1960), Giannelli & Savoia (1978, 1979), Marotta ( , 2008) p,b,t,d,k,g > ɸ,β,θ,,x/h/ø,ɣ / V__(R)V V__V Stand. It. Tuscan glose p apɛrto aɸɛrto ouvert t laato laaθo côté k bruuko bruuxo, bruuho, bruuo worm 2. V__RV p la piega la ɸjɛɛɣa le pli t liitro liiθro litre k la krɛɛma la xɾɛɛma, la hrɛɛma la crème 3. but resistance in Strong Position {#,C}__ and in gemination R__ pɔrta pɔrta porte #__ pjɛɛde pjɛɛe pied gém. gatto gatto chat

23 v p p v b b p p v b b v test case 4: French
only labials and dentals are examined – the situation of velars is complicated by palatalizations (Bourciez 1967 etc.) labials in TR groups #__ Coda__ V__V pr pl pruna prune plenu plein comprend(e)re comprendre purp(u)ra pourpre amplus ample *temp(u)la temple capra chèvre pip(e)re poivre duplu double cap(u)lu afr chable br bl brachiu bras *blastimare blâmer umbra ombre arb(o)re arbre germ *blād afr emblaver umb(i)licus afr umblil labra lèvre rob(o)re rouvre fab(u)la fable v p p v b b simplex Labials #__ Coda__ V__V p porta porte talpa taupe ripa rive b bene bien herba herbe faba fève p p v b b v

24 t t d d ø ø t t ø d d ø test case 4: French dentals in TR groups
#__ Coda__ V__V tr tres trois tractare traiter capistru chevêtre alt(e)ru autre petra pierre it(e)rare errer dr drappu drap *dras(i)c drêche perd(e)re perdre quadratu carré rid(e)re rire t t ø d d ø simplex dentals #__ Coda__ V__V t tela toile cantare chanter vita vie d dente dent ardore ardeur coda queue t t ø d d ø

25 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
this part of the talk is joint work with Guylaine Brun-Trigaud ALF Atlas Linguistique de la France Gilléron, Jules, and Édmond Édmont Atlas linguistique de la France. Paris: Champion, 9 vol., supplément 1920. based on fieldwork , 639 points of inquiry.

26 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
prediction in a dialectal system T alone and T in a TR cluster behave alike in every given system (dialect) hence for each obstruent and each position, the isoglosses of T alone and T in a TR cluster are identical. ==> not exactly a trivial or intuitive prediction ==> a prediction about 639 systems at the same time examination of labials in intervocalic position dentals are inconclusive for independent reasons (desolidarisation, see next slide), velars are blurred by palatalisations.

27 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
goal: comparison of -P- with -PR- -B- with -BR- variation and its interpretation: only actual branching onsets (solidary TR groups) are an input for the comparison. Hence non-solidary groups are counted out: coda vocalisation betrays desolidarisation: V.TRV > VT.RV (grey-shaded on the maps below) example: solidary TR group: FEBREM > fièvre, TAB(U)LA > table non-solidary TR group: FEBREM > fewre, TAB(U)LA > tole

28 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
-B- vs. -BR- syntheses lexical basis ALF level 0 B’L 0 BL 0 B’R 0 BR 0 B 0 level 1 BR 1 BL 1 B 1 level 2 BR 2 B 2 -B- ABANTIARE > avancer ABOCULUS > aveugle FABA > fève HIBERNU > hiver -BR- (primary) FEBREM > fièvre -B’R- (secondary) BIB(E)RE > boire SCRIB(E)RE > écrire -BL- (primary) OBLITARE > oublier -B’L- (secondary) SAB(U)LU > sable DIAB(U)LU > diable STAB(U)LA > étable ?

29 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
-P- vs. -PR- syntheses lexical basis ALF level 0 level 1 level 2 -P- CREPANT > crèvent NEPOTE > neveu *ARRIPARE > arriver TROPARE > trouver LUPA > louve SAPONE > savon SAPA > sève -PR- (primary) APRILE > avril -P’R- (secondary) PIP(E)R > poivre LEP(O)RE > lièvre OP(E)RARIU > ouvrier -PL- (primary) DUPLU > double -P’L- (secondary) CAP(U)LU > câble P 0 P 1 P 2 ? PR 0 PR 1 P’R 0 PR 2 PL 0 PL 1 P’L 0

30 -P- alone intervocalic

31 -P- in an intervocalic TR group

32 intervocalic -P- alone and in a group
Croissant superposition: intervocalic -P- alone and in a group poitevin

33 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
Croissant -P- alone spirantizes (-P- > -v-), but remains a stop in -PR- (> -br-). 8 points of inquiry (503‑5, 600, 601, 800, 802, 803) well-known zone of transition (Croissant).

34 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
poitevin opposite pattern: P in PR spirantizes (> vr), but lexical variation is observed for isolated P (> b, v) (which however always voices) 24 points of inquiry (429, 448, 459, 479, , 515, 517, 518, 521, 525, , 533, 535, 536, 540, 621, 630, 632) since ‑PR‑ always spirantizes, a fricative output is also expected for ‑P‑. lexical basis ALF: 7 words unexpected non-spirantization concerns only two words two contravening words: LOPA > loube, SAPONE > sabon LOPA: contravening in 19 out of 24 points, SAPONE in 17 out of 24. The five other words are well-behaved in all 24 points. ==> lexical inconsistency points to contact, rather than to regular evolution.

35 -B- alone intervocalic

36 -B- in an intervocalic TR group

37 intervocalic -B- alone and in a group
superposition: intervocalic -B- alone and in a group provençal

38 test case 5: Gallo-Romance dialects (ALF)
provençal - there are no *vl, *vr at all - hence -BL-, -BR- could not produce *vr, *vl (cf. *vl in oïl)

39 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
in French, lat. tr,dr (primary and secondary) lose their dental with eventually ensuing compensatory lengthening of the r. Fouché ( :719ff) etc. > r > rr tr primaire patre afr. pere petra afr. pierre secondaire 3sg it(e)rat afr. eire it(e)raare afr. errer dr quadratu afr. carré *riid(e)re afr. rire fut.3sg *riid(e)rát afr. rirra

40 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
three factors monophthongs vs. diphthongs light (ie, ue) vs. heavy (ei, ai) diphthongs stress for monophthong

41 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
Latin vowel length is irrelevant > r > rr lat. VV__ tr maatre afr. mere *buut(y)raare afr. burrer dr creed(e)re afr. creire fut.3sg *creed(e)rát afr. crerra lat. V__ patre afr. pere latroone afr. larron quadratu afr. carré

42 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
only Gallo-Romance vowel length matters G-R length is stress: tonic vowels (in open syllables) are long unstressed vowels are short > r > rr g-rom VV__ (= tonique) tr bút(y)ru afr. bure pátre afr. pere dr créed(e)re afr. creire g-rom V__ (= atone) *buut(y)ráare afr. burrer latroone afr. larron fut.3sg *creed(e)rát afr. crerra quadratu afr. carré

43 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
(Gallo-Romance) stress does not matter for diphtongs heavy diphthongs always prohibit gemination light diphthongs always provoke gemination (but are also always tonic) ==> heavy diphthongs are inherently long ==> light diphthongs are inherently short afr. évolution en position libre diphtongue lourde tonique ai ei vitru afr. veire atone *mat(e)riame afr. mairien diphtongue légère ie petra afr. pierre ue frk. *looþr afr. luerre (>leurre)

44 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR 1. tr,dr > r / VV__ g-rom lat. monopht. tonique < VV tonique ii 3sg consiid(e)rat afr. cossire uu buut(y)ru afr. bure 3sg desiid(e)rat afr. desire aa fraatre afr. frere *riid(e)re afr. rire maatre afr. mere occiid(e)re afr. ocire imperaator afr. emperere < V tonique i arbitriu afr. arvoire a latro (cas sujet de latroone) afr. lere e *petr(i)ca afr. pierge patre afr. pere u lutra afr. leure oo < au au claud(e)re afr. clore exclaud(e)re afr. esclore Lovolautrum Vollore dipht. lourde ei 3sg it(e)rat afr. eire vitru afr. veire tonítru (<cl. tónitru) afr. toneire ee creed(e)re afr. creire ai *mat(e)riamentu afr. mairement *mat(e)riame afr. mairien repatriaare afr. repairier

45 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR 2. tr,dr > rr / V__ g-rom lat. dipht. légère ie e hed(e)ra afr. ierre Petru afr. Pierre petra afr. pierre ue oo frk. foodre afr. fuerre o Altiod(u)ru afr. Auçuerre (>Auxerre) frk. *looþr afr. luerre Nemelod(u)ru afr. Nantuerre Tonod(u)ru afr. Tonuerre monopht. atone < VV ii fut.3sg *occiid(e)rát afr. ocirra aa maatriina marraine fut.3sg *riid(e)rát afr. rirra uu *buut(y)raare afr. burrer ee fut.3sg *creed(e)rát afr. crerra *buut(y)rariu afr. burrier oo < au au fut.3sg *claud(e)rát afr. clorra fut.3sg *aud(i)rát afr. orra fut.3sg *gaud(i)rát (*gaudiire, lat. gaudeere) afr. jorra

46 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR 2. tr,dr > rr / V__ (choice of relevant data for < V unstressed) monopht. atone < V i *Bit(u)riigu afr. Berri a *matriculaare afr. mareillier it(e)raare afr. errer *matriina afr. marrine, marraine fut.3sg *vid(e)rát afr. verra quadratu afr. carré vitrariu afr. verrier patriinu afr. parrin, parrain vitriinu afr. verrin *quadrellu afr. carrel e *petrariu afr. perrier *quadrifurcu afr. carreforc *petroone afr. perron quadruviu afr. carrouge *petrosiiliu afr. perresil *quadrariu carrier Petriciacu afr. Perreci *quatrinioone afr. carregnon (>carillon) fut.3sg *sed(e)rát afr. serra *adripaare arriver

47 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR alternations within verbal paradigms V tonique__ > r V atone__ > rr *riid(e)re afr. rire fut.3sg *riid(e)rát afr. rirra 3sg it(e)rat afr. eire it(e)raare afr. errer creed(e)re afr. creire fut.3sg *creed(e)rát afr. crerra occiid(e)re afr. ocire fut.3sg *occiid(e)rát afr. ocirra buut(y)ru afr. bure *buut(y)raare afr. burrer *buut(y)rariu afr. burrier

48 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR generalization tr,dr > r / VV__ tr,dr > rr / V__ ==> *VVC.CV superheavy rhymes are forbidden ==> this much we knew anyway

49 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR *VVC.CV this much we knew anyway: this is why there is a contrast between the evolution of vowels in open and closed syllables stress is converted into length, but long vowels can only exist in open syllables ==> Vstr.CV  VV.CV vs. VstrC.CV  VC.CV lat op cl open syllable closed syllble a e mare mer carta charte i,ee oi pira poire virga verge ie feru fier herba herbe o eu mola meule porta porte u,oo u floore fleur surdu sourd

50 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR compensatory lengthening how can an onset-x slot become a coda ? worse: a non-moraic consonant become moraic?

51 compensatory lengthening TR > RR
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ compensatory lengthening TR > RR if the solidarity of TR is due to " <== ", the breakdown of this relationship due to the elimination of T sets an full CV unit free, which is ready for segmental identification. ==> compensatory lengthening.

52 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian generalities there are many metatheses in Sardinian (Molinu 1998, Bolognesi 1998) not all metatheses need to have the same workings focus on one particular case found in Tertenia (point 211 of Contini 1987) there is no lateral in coda position at all in the language data and analysis below are by Rosangela Lai, who is a native speaker of Tertenia Sardinian.

53 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian split between native and foreign vocabulary: only native items have the phonology that is of interest to us native foreign p /paris pappendu/ "you seem eating" a) [párizi βappéndu] b) [páris pappéndu] /tenis puntʃas/ "you have (some) nails" (cat. punxa) a) [ténizi βúntʃaza] b) [ténis púntʃaza] b /paris bazendu/ "you seem kissing" a) [párizi azéndu] b) [párir βazéndu] /paris bivendu/ "you seem living" (sp. vivir) a) [párizi bivéndu] b) [párir bivéndu]

54 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian native foreign t /tenis tempus/ "you have time" a) [ténizi ðémpuzu] b) [ténis témpuzu] /tenis tamatta/ "you have tomatoes" (cat. tomata) a) [ténizi ðamátta] b) [ténis tamátta] d /portas dentis/ "you have teeth" a) [pórtaza éntizi] b) [pórtar ðéntizi] /tenis diziʎʎu/ "you wish sth" (cat. desig) a) [ténizi dizíʎʎu] b) [ténir dizíʎʎu] k /paris kastiendu/ "you seem to be looking" a) [párizi ɣastiéndu] b) [páris kastiéndu] /tenis kuʎʎera/ "you have a spoon" (cat. cullera) a) [ténizi ɣuʎʎéra] b) [ténis kuʎʎéra] g /portas ɡunneɖɖa/ "you are wearing a skirt" a) [portaza unnéɖɖa] b) [portar ɣunnéɖɖa] /tenis ɡana/ "you feel like doing sth" (cat./sp. gana) a) [ténizi gána] b) [ténir gána]

55 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian summary for native items in weak position voiceless input: voicing + spirantization voiced input: > zero strong position C__ weak position V__V native foreign p β t k ɣ b zero d g

56 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian metathesis /ses dormendu/ "you are sleeping“ [sézi orméndu] [sér romméndu] /portas bentri manna/ “you have a big belly“ [pórtaza éntri mánna] [pórtar βrénti mánna] conditions on the landing site: must be a voiced stop conditions on the take-off site: ANY cluster with an r, RT or TR trigger: preceding C-final word

57 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian crossing the three criteria landing site = voiced stop internal r-group RT or TR only native vocabulary leaves us with only 5 roots, two of which do metathesize, against 3 that do not: do metathesize dormiri "sleep" bentre "belly" do not metathesize barba "beard" bermi "worm"   berbei "sheep"   /portas barba longa/ “you have long beard“ [pórtaza árβa loŋga] [pórtar βárβa loŋga]

58 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian ==> whatever the analysis, it must be based on a LEXICAL difference between the two groups

59 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian external sandhi excludes allomorphic analyses, i.e. where a given morpheme has several lexical entries IF you want to stick to a modular view of grammar, i.e. where phonology and morphology are two distinct computational systems, i.e. where there is no mixing of instructions (in the same constraint hierarchy) only phonological properties of previous cycles (phases) are visible to allomorph selection phonologically conditioned allomorphy is a classical argument for abandoning modularity Embick (2010:81ff) provides an overview of the question, showing how phonologically conditioned allomorphy works in a modular framework

60 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian ==> if you don’t like modularity, you can do phonologically conditioned allomorphy with reference to outer cycles. And generative grammar will not be the same anymore: it is an application of the Standard model of Cognitive Science to language. This model is modular. Opposed to this is the "everything is one" perspective of connectionism, which is a piece of OT’s genetic endowment (Smolensky 1987, 1988) ==> if you do think that grammar is modular, you will want to have a purely phonological analysis of the metathesis mentioned, and of any external sandhi phenomenon for that matter. So do I: bear with me.

61 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian classical, pre-theoretical perspectives on metathesis metathesis is triggered because the liquid in its original position is illegal or in "bad shape" ==> not the case here matathesizing liquids are attracted to consonants in strong position ==> not in this case: we need a LEXICAL difference between metathesizing and non-metathesizing roots. Not all consonants in strong position cause liquids to move.

62 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian triggering mechanism I in Government Phonology all morphemes end in a nucleus: C-final words end in an empty nucleus /sesø/ vs. /sesi/ ==> metathesis is triggered by the empty nucleus of /sesø/ /ses dormendu/ /sesi dormendu/ C V | s e i

63 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian triggering mechanism II two empty nuclei in a row are illegal hence the lexical contrast: metathesizing roots have an empty nucleus non-metathesizing roots don’t C V - | s e d o r m n u p t a b

64 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
1) tr,dr > r / VV__ metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian repair metathesis occurs in order to repair the sequence of two empty nuclei the metathesized liquid forms a branching onset (d<=r) with the initial consonant which circumscribes the empty nucleus and thereby makes the structure well-formed. C V - | s e d <= r o m n u ==> the existence of an empty nucleus in the middle of the branching onset is critical

65 metathesis in Tertenia Sardinian
recall that a øT<=RV is well-formed C V | T R Lic <== IG Gvt

66 thank you for your attention

67 References 1 Bolognesi, Roberto The phonology of Campidanian Sardinian. Dordrecht: HIL. Bourciez, Edouard & Jean Bourciez Phonétique française. 9e édition Paris: Klincksieck. Castellani, Arrigo Precisazioni sulla gorgia toscana. Boletin de de Filologia 19: Contini, Michele Etude de géographie phonétique et de phonétique instrumentale du sarde. 2 vols. Alessandria: dell'Orso. Embick, David Localism versus Globalism in Morphology and Phonology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Fouché, Pierre Phonétique historique du français. Trois vols. Paris: Klincksieck. Giannelli, Luciano & Leonardo Savoia L'indebolimento consonantico in Toscana (I). Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 2: Giannelli, Luciano & Leonardo Savoia L'indebolimento consonantico in Toscana (II). Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 3-4: Gilliéron, Jules & Edmond Edmont Atlas linguistique de la France. Paris: Champion. Lowenstamm, Jean CV as the only syllable type. Current trends in Phonology. Models and Methods, edited by Jacques Durand & Bernard Laks, Salford, Manchester: ESRI. WEB.

68 References 2 Marotta, Giovanna Non solo spiranti. La gorgia toscana nel parlato di Pisa. L'Italia Dialettale 62: Marotta, Giovanna Lenition in Tuscan Italian (Gorgia Toscana). Lenition and Fortition, edited by Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho, Tobias Scheer & Philippe Ségéral, Berlin: de Gruyter. McCone, Kim Towards a relative chronology of ancient and medieval celtic sound change. Maynooth: St. Patrick's College. Molinu, Lucia La syllabe en sarde. Ph.D dissertation, Université Sendhal de Grenoble. Rizzi, Luigi Relativized Minimality. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 16. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Rohlfs, Gerhard Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e dei suoi dialetti. Fonetica. Torina: Einaudi. Scheer, Tobias A Lateral Theory of Phonology. Vol.1: What is CVCV, and why should it be? Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

69 References 3 Ségéral, Philippe & Tobias Scheer La Coda-Miroir. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 96: WEB. Ségéral, Philippe & Tobias Scheer The Coda Mirror, stress and positional parameters. Lenition and Fortition, edited by Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho, Tobias Scheer & Philippe Ségéral, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. WEB. Smolensky, Paul Connectionist AI, symbolic AI, and the brain. Artificial Intelligence Review 1: Smolensky, Paul On the proper treatment of connectionism. Brain and Behavioural Sciences 11: 1-74.


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