Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY"— Presentation transcript:

1 Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY
First Immigration Policy 2.0 Workshop February 14th 2011 Dr. Carola Burkert Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg/Germany Working Group „Migration and Integration“ 1 1

2 AGENDA 1. Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?!
2. Managing Labour Migration in Germany 3. Managing Labour Migration in Germany - Results 4. Managing Labour Migration in Germany – Problem areas 5. Conclusion 2 2

3 Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?!
3 3

4 Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?!
Immigration/Emigration, Foreigners, Fall of the „Iron Curtain“ Ban on Recruitment Start of the „Guest Worker Program“ New Immigration Act Immigrant driven systems Point based systems first introduced in CA in 1967, then in AUS (1989) and NZ (1991) To be admitted migrants needs to meet a “pass rate” Typically points are attributed to five criteria Education Occupation Work experience Language proficiency Age Additional criteria are prior work in destination country; education acquired in destination country, settlement stipulations etc. Employer driven systems Employers are key players. They sponsor application for admission of a foreign worker Typically they need to carry out a labour market test, to establish the non-availability of a similarly skilled domestic worker Example: H1B visa program in USA 4 Source: Federal Statistical Office, own graph 4 4

5 Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?!
Balance of Immigration/Emigration, Foreigners, Immigrant driven systems Point based systems first introduced in CA in 1967, then in AUS (1989) and NZ (1991) To be admitted migrants needs to meet a “pass rate” Typically points are attributed to five criteria Education Occupation Work experience Language proficiency Age Additional criteria are prior work in destination country; education acquired in destination country, settlement stipulations etc. Employer driven systems Employers are key players. They sponsor application for admission of a foreign worker Typically they need to carry out a labour market test, to establish the non-availability of a similarly skilled domestic worker Example: H1B visa program in USA 5 Source: Federal Statistical Office, own graph 5 5

6 2. Managing Labour Migration in Germany
6 6

7 Economic Migration across the OECD Permanent Migration, Migration Categories, Selected Countries 2007 7 Source: OECD; Liebig 2010 7

8 Important Types of Labour Migration
2000 to 2004: „Green Card“ to attract highly skilled foreigners Since 2005: Immigration Act - Possibilities for higher education graduates from German universities skilled workers highly-qualified workers researchers self-employed (family members) (contract/guest-Workers; seasonal-workers) 8 8

9 3. Managing Labour Migration - Results
9 9

10 Some are more attractive than others….
Qualifications of Migrants, selected countries, 2000 (in %) Replace middle with medium if possible, not a big deal, if not possible 10 Source: Docquier/Marfouk 2006, 10

11 4. Managing Labour Migration – Problem areas
11 11

12 Factors which reduce the attractiveness of Germany (1/2)
Language is a huge barrier Complicated immigration regulations „hard to understand“/“confusing“ „lack of transparency“ „different handling“ of identical issues by local authorities (e.g Green Card – foreigners´ registration office) long duration of the approval procedure different counter parts „one stop government“/approval procedure What does different counter parts mean? 12 Source:DIHK 2010 12

13 Factors which reduce the attractiveness of Germany (2/2)
Recognition of foreign qualifications lack of information and transparency complicated Employer: bureaucratic procedure Lack of welcoming athmosphere feeling: „Not welcome“ stereotypes signal: restraint on free movement (EU-Enlargement) 13 13

14 Foreign Students: Leaving Germany after Graduation
Third country graduates: residence permit up to one year to enable them to seek employment 2009 graduates (third country) 3.440 residence permits for job seeking (19%) - success? 4.820 work permits for such graduates (26%) Period of one year: to short for job-seeking? Lack of network for job seeking Lack of information/support about residence and work permit Scholarship etc. Do you also have data for other years? 2009 strikes me as a particularly difficult year in terms of the job market. Is this rate higher in years where it is easier to get a job? 14 Source: Bundesministerium des Innern 2011, IW 2011 14

15 5. Conclusion 15 15

16 Conclusion View of Economic Theory:
- migration decisions (like nearly all human decisions) are a question of benefits and costs; legal framework is just one contributing factor. - migration policy can be interpreted as an attempt to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of migration. How can we unlock the full potential of migration? Starting points: information coordination networks transparency 16 16

17 Contact 17 17

18 References Bitkom (2007): Standpunkte zur Zuwanderunghochqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte. Den Wettbewerb um die besten Köpfe Gewinnen. Berlin: Bitkom (http://www.bitkom.org/files/documents/Standpunkte_dc.pdf, ) Bundesministerium des Innern (2011): Migrationsbericht des Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge im Auftrag der Bundesregierung. Migrationsbericht Berlin: BMI Brücker, Herbert; Ringer, Sebastian (2008: Ausländer in Deutschland: Vergleichsweise schlecht qualifiziert. IAB-Kurzbericht 1/2008 Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag (2010): Deutschland für ausländische Fachkräfte und Studenten nur mäßig attraktiv – Ergebnisse einer AHK-Umfrage. Berlin: DIHK Docquier, F.; Marfouk, A. (2006): International migration by educational attainment ( ) - Release 1.1., In C. Ozden and M. Schiff (eds). International Migration, Remittances and Development, Palgrave Macmillan: New York (http://perso.uclouvain.be/frederic.docquier/filePDF/DM_BookWB.pdf, ) IW-Dienst (2011): Nach dem Studium geht´s zurück. Nr. 5, , IW: Koeln Liebig, Thomas (2010): Labour market integration of immigrants and their children. Key findings from OECD country studies and related OECD work. Presentation at the Institute for Employment Research 17. February 2010, Nuremberg 18 18

19 Relevance of regional level:
local immigration authority – residence permit local employment agencies – work permit national legal framework – room for discretionary application of rules at local level? Alien very misleading: wird eher fuer Ausserirdische verwendet... 19 19

20

21


Download ppt "Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google