Presentation on theme: "Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY First Immigration Policy 2.0 Workshop February 14th 2011 Dr. Carola Burkert Institute for Employment."— Presentation transcript:
Examples of Labour Immigration at National Level: GERMANY First Immigration Policy 2.0 Workshop February 14th 2011 Dr. Carola Burkert Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg/Germany Working Group Migration and Integration
2 AGENDA 1. Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?! 2. Managing Labour Migration in Germany 3. Managing Labour Migration in Germany - Results 4. Managing Labour Migration in Germany – Problem areas 5. Conclusion
3 1.Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?!
4 Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?! Immigration/Emigration, Foreigners, Source: Federal Statistical Office, own graph Start of the Guest Worker Program Ban on Recruitment Fall of the Iron Curtain New Immigration Act
5 Germany - an Immigration Country for the last 50 years?! Balance of Immigration/Emigration, Foreigners, Source: Federal Statistical Office, own graph
6 2. Managing Labour Migration in Germany
7 Source: OECD; Liebig 2010 Economic Migration across the OECD Permanent Migration, Migration Categories, Selected Countries 2007
8 Important Types of Labour Migration 2000 to 2004: Green Card to attract highly skilled foreigners Since 2005: Immigration Act - Possibilities for higher education graduates from German universities skilled workers highly-qualified workers researchers self-employed (family members) (contract/guest-Workers; seasonal-workers)
9 3. Managing Labour Migration - Results
10 Some are more attractive than others…. Qualifications of Migrants, selected countries, 2000 (in %) Source: Docquier/Marfouk 2006,
11 4. Managing Labour Migration – Problem areas
12 Factors which reduce the attractiveness of Germany (1/2) Language is a huge barrier Complicated immigration regulations hard to understand/confusing lack of transparency different handling of identical issues by local authorities (e.g Green Card – foreigners´ registration office) long duration of the approval procedure different counter parts one stop government/approval procedure Source:DIHK 2010
13 Factors which reduce the attractiveness of Germany (2/2) Recognition of foreign qualifications lack of information and transparency complicated Employer: bureaucratic procedure Lack of welcoming athmosphere feeling: Not welcome stereotypes signal: restraint on free movement (EU-Enlargement)
14 Foreign Students: Leaving Germany after Graduation Source: Bundesministerium des Innern 2011, IW 2011 Third country graduates: residence permit up to one year to enable them to seek employment graduates (third country) residence permits for job seeking (19%) - success? work permits for such graduates (26%) Period of one year: to short for job-seeking? Lack of network for job seeking Lack of information/support about residence and work permit Scholarship etc.
15 5. Conclusion
16 Conclusion View of Economic Theory: - migration decisions (like nearly all human decisions) are a question of benefits and costs; legal framework is just one contributing factor. - migration policy can be interpreted as an attempt to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of migration. How can we unlock the full potential of migration? Starting points: information coordination networks transparency
18 References Bitkom (2007): Standpunkte zur Zuwanderunghochqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte. Den Wettbewerb um die besten Köpfe Gewinnen. Berlin: Bitkom (http://www.bitkom.org/files/documents/Standpunkte_dc.pdf, )http://www.bitkom.org/files/documents/Standpunkte_dc.pdf Bundesministerium des Innern (2011): Migrationsbericht des Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge im Auftrag der Bundesregierung. Migrationsbericht Berlin: BMI Brücker, Herbert; Ringer, Sebastian (2008: Ausländer in Deutschland: Vergleichsweise schlecht qualifiziert. IAB- Kurzbericht 1/2008 Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag (2010): Deutschland für ausländische Fachkräfte und Studenten nur mäßig attraktiv – Ergebnisse einer AHK-Umfrage. Berlin: DIHK Docquier, F.; Marfouk, A. (2006): International migration by educational attainment ( ) - Release 1.1., In C. Ozden and M. Schiff (eds). International Migration, Remittances and Development, Palgrave Macmillan: New York (http://perso.uclouvain.be/frederic.docquier/filePDF/DM_BookWB.pdf, )http://perso.uclouvain.be/frederic.docquier/filePDF/DM_BookWB.pdf IW-Dienst (2011): Nach dem Studium geht´s zurück. Nr. 5, , IW: Koeln Liebig, Thomas (2010): Labour market integration of immigrants and their children. Key findings from OECD country studies and related OECD work. Presentation at the Institute for Employment Research 17. February 2010, Nuremberg
19 Relevance of regional level: local immigration authority – residence permit local employment agencies – work permit national legal framework – room for discretionary application of rules at local level?