Presentation on theme: "09/04/2013 Authors: Rodrigo Calili Reinaldo Souza Alain Galli Margaret Armstrong André Marcato 4 th Latin-American Meeting of Energy Economics (ELAEE)"— Presentation transcript:
09/04/2013 Authors: Rodrigo Calili Reinaldo Souza Alain Galli Margaret Armstrong André Marcato 4 th Latin-American Meeting of Energy Economics (ELAEE) Uruguay, Montevideo Estimating the cost savings in Brazil by implementing energy efficient policies
An increasing of the electricity cost, coupled with the global economic growth; The rising scarcity of energy resources; The increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere; The fact that many market players see investment in energy efficiency projects as high risk.
Will improved energy efficiency enable us to avoid costly investments in new power-plants? How can the cost savings be evaluated in an economic environment that is subject to uncertainty?
The expected demand for electricity for Brazil is known (scenario 0). The stochastic demand for electricity was computed by replacing the deterministic EE forecast in the demand forecast (called the standard scenario) by 100 stochastic forecasts obtained using the 100 simulations of the energy efficiency.
The third step was to determine the dispatch model for each of the 100 demand forecasts, and hence the corresponding marginal operating costs. This was done using a program called MDDH (Model of Hydrothermal Dispatch) that was developed by PUC-Rio and UFJF as part of a strategic R&D project. For each period of time, we computed the difference between the operating cost in scenario 0, OC(0), and operating cost in each scenario "s", OC(s), with "s" from 1 to 100, called OCdif(s).
Once we have the operating cost, it is easy to calculate the investment avoided with energy efficiency policies, with the next expression: where I is the total avoided investment with energy efficiency policies and is a discount rate. The next step was to compute the breakeven investment (i.e. when NPV = 0). Two scenarios, a pessimistic one with a high discount rate of 12%, and an optimistic one with a discount rate of 7.5%, were considered.
We ran the MDDH software 101 times to estimate the operating cost in each demand scenario, including scenario 0. Operating cost for SoutheastOperating cost for South Operating cost for NortheastOperating cost for North
After that we calculated the difference in operating cost between scenario 0 and each scenario (OCdif). SoutheastSouth NortheastNorth
Finally, we calculate the avoided investment due to energy efficiency using equation:
To illustrate how large the savings can be, we compare the amounts that could be economized with the cost of building a new hydro-electric power plant, using the new Belo Monte project to illustrate our point..
We have demonstrated that even for a modest improvement in energy efficiency (<1% per year), the savings over the next 5 years range from R$ 237 million in the conservative scenario to R$ 268 million in the optimistic scenario. By comparison the new Belo Monte hydro-electric plant will cost R$ 26 billion to be repaid over a 30 year period (i.e. R$ 867 million in 5 years). So in Brazil EE policies are preferable to building a new power plant, even a hydro-electric one. We can also conclude that an increase of the energy efficiency measures/policies in Brazil would reduce the operating cost, and would lead to avoiding investment in new power plants. As future work we suggest studying the option to invest in energy efficiency policies, which could give a curve of NPV and also the threshold where it is preferable to invest in energy efficiency policies than to build a new power plant.
First, we fit an exponential regression to the PNEfs energy efficiency goals; We generated 100 simulations of energy efficiency over the next 5 years on a monthly time step using a geometric Brownian motion (GBM) because its mean is exponential.
Estimating the cost savings in Brazil by implementing energy efficient policies Keywords Geometric Brownian motion (GBM); Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP); Energy efficiency policies; Brazil; Hydrothermal power system